Types of qualitative designs ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory Each question is to be answer separately. Please place the question and then the response below. Requirement is 1 current scholarly peer reviewed references for each question; each reference is to have a corresponding in-text citation, APA formatting and information that supports the discussion and a minimum of 183 words each (this is excluding the references). Absolutely no more than 10% of each response can be cited. Be sure to include the essential APA elements per the 6th Edition (do not you first person, third person, or past tense. Here’s an example: There are three types of qualitative designs ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory. The design type that would best fit at my facility is that of phenomenology. This type of design seeks to examine peoples’ life experience and the essence of the phenomena (Polit & Beck, 2012). My facility is a busy level one-trauma center in Phoenix, which serves acutely ill patients, and their families in traumatic life events. An example of how this design type would research the phenomena in this facility is to examine the experience of patient’s family in the care of patients in traumatic arrest while in the emergency department. In a recent study by Hung and Pang (2011) a phenomenological approach was used to examine the experiences of family members presence during resuscitation in an emergency department in Hong Kong. The aim was to observe their experiences in this crisis dealing with their loved ones. References Hung, M. Y., & Pang, S. C. (2011). Family presence preference when patients are receiving resuscitation in an accident and emergency department. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(1), 56-67 Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2012). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (9th ed.). Retrieved from University of Phoenix References must be academic, peer-reviewed sources. Cliffs Notes, Wikipedia, about.com, eHow.com commercial sites and blogs are not acceptable sources to be used as primary references. Examples of credible web sources include The Joint Commission, American Hospital Association and the National League for Nursing. Chapter 7 DeYoung (2009) provides advantages and disadvantages of different teaching methods and tools. These are some of advantages to consider while finding the method of teaching. There are economical reasons like in case of lecturing. It might be effective with 20 or 200 students. Audiovisual materials can be used for big groups of students, to be reused for different groups of learners and different instructors. Volume of information: during lectures more information can be taught than by reading material within the same time. Audiovisuals like DVDs, PowerPoint give to the instructor to navigate to various sections of them that gives control over speed and the amount of teaching materials. Quality of information: lecturer can point out the most important and valuable information. Discussion helps an instructor to see the progress of students’ learning process, and students have an opportunity to learn the most difficult or unknown before areas of teaching materials. Also, discussion stimulates development of problem-solving skills. Questioning helps to meet learning objectives. Audiovisuals address all three modes of learning–cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. DeYoung, S. (2009). Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators (2nd ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database. Question 1: What is your favorite strategy for encouraging discussion at work? Keeping an open line of communication is important in health care organizations. I have learned in my past class that organizational silence is unhealthy. However, it is challenging to expose issues in a unit because of fear of retaliation or fear of disrupting inter-personal relationships. Sometimes, management does not give protection to a staff who reports an important issue. Encouraging staff to practice meaningful communication to build trust and maintain effective relationships in the workplace are important. If discussions are not that effective in giving information, written communication can be more appropriate to describe details. If discussions are held, it is critical to facilitate effective discussion techniques. The background and attitude of staff need to be considered. It is also important to recognize that as a facilitator of a discussion, leaders need to refrain from doing much of the talking (DeYoung, 2009). Everyone needs to be encouraged to participate. A sound argument, logical reasoning, and tactful questions need to be incorporated in discussions. Reference: DeYoung, S. (2009). Teaching strategies for nurse educators (2nd ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database Question 2: Would share strategies that you learned to ensure that “organizational silence” is addressed and how you can recognize it? Organizational silence can be addressed by highlighting a diversity of viewpoints (Spector, 2010). Articulating and analyzing the differences of individuals does not mean that they have to change their attitudes to fit in the organization. Finding ways to work with the differences can improve the effectiveness of an organization. A person will be able to adapt better if he is encouraged to articulate, well-respected, and well-treated by coworkers. According to Spector (2010), avoiding, accomodating, or compromising when faced with conflicts will suboptimize the ability of organizational members to work together. Facing a conflict may be difficult for some most especially if an organization is unsupportive and lack of action is observed. Protecting employees through ethics hotlines, human resource support safety programs, and ethics committee will help a staff when faced with circumstances that threatens safety. Adequate time to listen to a staff who wants to verbalize an issue will promote constructive communication. Reference: Spector, B. (2010). Implementing Organizational Change. Theory into Practice (2nd ed.). University of Phoenix eBook Collection. Question 3: A script for new staff would help them to articulate without causing defensiveness. Do you have a particular phrase or phrases that you think could open such a conversation?