Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) are guidelines for companies to follow as they prepare and issue financial statements. Let’s start by getting an understanding of why the guidelines were developed in the first place? Who relies on the financial statements (external users)? What happens if an External User relies on financial statements that are inaccurate? What negative consequences can arise from relying on inaccurate financial statements?
This section lists options that can be used to view responses.
|Accounting Conceptual Framework (graded)|
A sound foundation is necessary for success in any task from building a house to putting on make-up. In terms of U.S. Accounting Standards, it is also necessary to have a sound foundation, referred to as the conceptual framework. Let’s discuss it step by step starting with the objective. What is the objective of accounting standards?
The balance sheet is one of the first financial statements I turn to when reviewing a company. You can learn a lot about a company by looking at its balance sheet. The balance sheet is also called the statement of financial position. Why is this? What is the purpose of the balance sheet?
Disclosure Notes (graded)
Disclosures are required to elaborate on certain items that are presented in summarized form in the financial statements. There are specific disclosure notes that are required to be present in all financial statements, while others may be unique to the disclosure needs of a particular company.
Let’s start by discussing the three required disclosures. Please pick one and explain what information is to be included in the note:
- Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
- Subsequent Events
- Third Party Transactions
Cash is listed first on the balance sheet because it is the asset most readily available to pay off debt or use in operations. Cash is also one of the assets that most often “grows legs” and walks away. Therefore, it is important that any business protect its cash; it does so through Internal Control Procedures. Please start by defining Internal Control, then discuss specific procedures related to cash.
When a business extends credit to its customers, we call this Accounts Receivable. Often a business will grant its customers a discount. What are the two types of discounts, and how does the journal entry to record the sale change when there is a discount granted?
|Inventory Classification and Systems (graded)|
Merchandise Inventory is assets held for sale in the ordinary course of business of wholesale and retail companies. Manufacturing inventories are raw materials or WIP that will be used or consumed in the production of finished goods to be sold. Review the Annual Report that you chose for the Week 3 Discussion topic #1 and based on what you’ve read in the text and in the Becker materials, explain how inventory is presented on the balance sheet and what further information you found in the footnote disclosures about the inventory method and “Impairment of Inventory”, if any.
|nventoriable Costs/Cost-Flow Assumptions (graded)|
We read about the Perpetual and the Periodic Inventory System. Regardless of which system is used, under both, we need to assign dollar amounts to the Ending Inventory and Cost of Goods Sold so that we can trace how costs flow through the system. Start by identifying what is included in inventory and then discuss how each item might be treated differently in the Perpetual vs. the Periodic Inventory System.
The lower-of-cost-or-market (LCM) approach was developed to avoid reporting inventory at an amount greater than the benefits it can provide. The LCM approach records losses in the period the value of the inventory drops below its cost instead of later in the period that the goods are ultimately sold. Is this a conservative or an aggressive approach? What does GAAP say about LCM?
|Inventory Errors (graded)|
It is discovered in 2013 that ending inventory from 2011 is understated. What accounts will be affected by this understatement, and how will they be affected? This is a situation that really happens. Start with the 2011 inventory being understated, and track the changes through the inventory account to 2013.