What are bureaucratic controls? In what ways have bureaucratic controls changed with the development of modern management techniques?
As there are two parts to the question, you need to have two elements to your response.
The first part of the question is a simple ‘what’ question: in order to respond to this part of the question you need to provide an explanation of what bureaucratic controls are. Stay on point with this, it only asks about what bureaucratic controls are, it’s a paragraph, maybe two at most. Do keep in mind that you need to be consistent with this throughout your essay: the explanation of bureaucratic control you provide is the definition of the concept for the rest of your essay as you progress through the second half of the essay.
The second part of the question is about changes in bureaucratic controls associated with modern management techniques. There are lots of ways you might choose to approach this. The key point is this: the question is about changes to the bureaucratic controls themselves. Your analysis will depend on what have said bureaucratic control is in the first part of the assessment.
Addressing the second part of the question is about identifying / explaining what happens to bureaucratic control when managers emphasise different techniques for eliciting work effort.
The point here is that there is an entire spectrum of possible answers: at one end, bureaucratic control is effectively abolished, at the other, bureaucratic control is unchanged, and there are numerous possibilities in between. You need to identify a position on this spectrum that represents how you see these changes (i.e. what you think has actually happened to bureaucratic control), and to explain how and why that position is logical, justified, reasonable, supported by evidence etc.