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These learning outcomesMUST blend into the dissertation topic or writing. Address the learning outcomes and demonstrate a systematic approach to literature. 1. Effectively use a wide range of information sources to extract and analyse relevant information 2. Synthesise and apply information from a number of sources to develop a reasoned argument 3. Analyse and apply the findings from contemporary evidence to current issues in professional practice 4. Exercise autonomy and initiative in tackling tasks and problems and weighing alternative interpretations, arguments and values. How to write the assignment: THIS INCLUDE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWA LITERATURE/ARTICLE USING A FRAMEWORKS TO CRITIQUE RESEARCH (E.G CORMACK) THEMES CRITICAL ANALYSE SYNTHESIS CREATIVITY Introduction (has been done pls see appendix 1) In this section you will be expected to give an overview of the topic that you have chosen and how it fits in to the overall impact of health and social care provision. This provides context for the dissertation in terms of the broader social, political and health care environments and agendas and a justification in relation to dissertation topic. The introduction needs to be sinscint. Review of published material (about 3000 words) In order to address the state of knowledge within your topic area you will need to identify and present the findings from various sources of evidence. These might include: • Empirical (actual) research • Policies and guidelines (national and local ( e.g RCOG, NICE GUILDLINES, BJM, CMACE,WHO, ) THIS DESSERTATION IS A SYSTEMATICLITERATURE REVIEW All essays must include contemporary research and a comparable amount of policy or guidance documents. You should not ignore any major policies, reviews or research in your area of interest. Give an overview of the topic, justify why you choose the topic, why is that issue important, where does it stands in term of international basis and also how things has changes. The policy documents should be used to contextualise the discussion of what happens in practice now, what should happen in practice now and what should happen in practice in the future? The other sources of evidence may inform the review throughout its different stages. Consideration should however be given to the quality of these sources as form of evidence and whether they should be used to inform professional practice. Discussion and conclusions (about 1150 words) This is your opportunity to pull together the ideas and themes that have emerged from your review of different sources of evidence in your area of interest. Special consideration should be given at this stage as to how the different evidence either fits together or perhaps contradicts each other. At this stage it is important to reflect on the quality of the evidence from the review. The conclusion itself will be a paragraph or so about what ultimately you have found. This will then be followed by a brief discussion about what actually happens in practice now. This then leads into the need to suggest areas for further research or policy changes that appear to be required given what you Appendix 1: INTRODUCTION( THIS IS MY ORGINAL WORK, CONTINUE WITH THE LITERATURE R\V, DISCUSSIONS, RECCOMDENTION AND CONCLUSION) The Effect of Active Management of the Third Stage of Labour on Maternal Morbidity and Mortality The third stage of labour consists of period following the delivery of the neonate, up until the subsequent expulsion of the placenta and its attached membranes (Macdonald and Magill-Cuerden, 2011).This stage can be accompanied by complications and if not managed safely, this can lead to maternal morbidity and mortality ( Gulmezoglu et al,2012). Therefore, effective management during this stage remains a critical component of the delivery process (Abalos, 2012). There are two ways of managing third stage of labour which is active and physiological (expectant) management(Matar et al, 2010). According to Darrent valley Hospital (DVH) Trust policy (2012) active management should involve the use of uterotonic drugs prior to the delivery of the placenta and membranes, clamping and cutting the cord within three minutes following the birth of the neonate and also delivery the placenta by control cord traction. The active management is recommended by National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2011) because it reduces the risk of post-partum haemorrhage and shortens the third stage of labour. This is supported by systematic review, which reveals that, there is a significant reduction of primary blood loss greater than 700mls in a population of women at risk of post-partum haemorrhage (Begley et al, 2011).Nevertheless postpartum haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality, it occurs in about 10.5% of birth and account for over 13 000 maternal mortality annually (WHO, 2007).As a result, the routine use of active management is widely recommended .This care strategy is in contrast to expectant management, which involves waiting for signs of placenta separation that enable the placenta to be delivered spontaneously by maternal effort and through the use of gravity (Prendiville et al., 2009). Moreover, the cord should not be clamped until pulsation has ceased (RCOG, 2011). The proposed advantages of active management include a reduced risk of significant postpartum haemorrhage, as well as its assumed benefits in hospitals with lower resources, where delivery-related deaths are far more common (Alfaifel, 2012). However, some debate exists as to the efficacy of this strategy versus expectant management, and some of the benefits of active management have been called into question by leading researchers in the field ( Breathnach& Geary, 2009). Furthermore, the potential dangers involved with uterine-relaxing agents, risks associated with cord-clamping and risks associated with controlled cord traction. Stanton et al (2009), demonstrated the lack of knowledge of effective active management strategies in low-resource countries such as Nicaragua and India has limited the effectiveness of this approach; while subsequently increasing the risk of mortality to the mother. Therefore, further research is needed to explore the potential use of this approach in both low- and high-resource areas alike (Stanton et al., 2009). Consequently, the aim of writing this topic is to systematically review how active third stage impact on women morbidity and mortality; and also to assess the effectiveness of active versus expectant management. Drawing on contemporary empirical studies, this dissertation seeks to explore the practical and theoretical implications of active management, as well as advantage and disadvantage of this approach in applied settings. Policies and guideline regarding the strategies will be discussed and both local and international active management research will be considered. Gaps in literature will be highlighted throughout, and recommendations will be provided. APPENDIX 3: MARKING GRADE Assessment grading criteria: Professional; Development for Midwifery Practice: Level 6 CRITERION 100-80 Excellent 79-70 Very good 69-60 Good 59-50 Sound 49-40 Satisfactory 39-20 Fail 19-0 Fail PRESENTATION AND STYLE Coherence and organisation of assignment Exceptional organisation and coherence clearly enhances the work. Strong logical organisation and coherence enhances fulfilment of the assignment objectives. Demonstrates logical organisation and coherence. Demonstrates sound, conventional organisation. Shows limited organisation. Poorly presented and structured but partially understandable. Disorganised and/or incoherent. Clarity of expression (incl. accuracy, spelling, grammar, punctuation Exceptional writing control, appropriate to assignment, which enhances the argument. Grammar and spelling accurate. Fluent writing style appropriate to the assignment. Grammar and spelling accurate. Language fluent. Grammar and spelling mainly accurate. Meaning clear, but language not always fluent. Grammar and/or spelling contain errors. Generally understandable, but language contains errors which detract from the argument. Meaning often unclear and/or frequent errors in grammar and/or spelling. Meaning unclear. Poor spelling, grammar and punctuation. CONFORMING TO INSTRUCTIONS Attention to purpose Addresses the purpose of the assignment comprehensively and imaginatively. Addresses the full purpose of the assignment with some creativity. Addresses the main purpose of the assignment effectively. Addresses the main purpose of the assignment. Some of the work is focused on the aims and themes of the assignment. Mostly fails to address the task set. Fails to address the task set. Referencing Sources used are acknowledged in the text and reference list and used fluently to support discussion. Referencing follows a systematic approach, appropriate to the discipline. All elements of individual references are present. Sources used are acknowledged in the text and reference list and used effectively to support discussion. Referencing follows a systematic approach, appropriate to the discipline. All elements of individual references are present. Sources used are acknowledged in the text and reference list and used to support discussion. Referencing follows a systematic approach, appropriate to the discipline. All elements of individual references are present. Sources used are acknowledged in the text and reference list. Referencing follows a systematic approach, appropriate to the discipline. Most elements of individual references are present. Sources of information acknowledged but integration between text and reference list is inconsistent. Attempts to follow systematic approach, appropriate to the discipline. Some elements of individual references may be incomplete and/or absent. Some sources of information acknowledged but links between text and reference list unclear. Referencing does not follow a systematic approach. Elements of individual references are incomplete and/or absent. Little or no acknowledgement of sources of information in text and/or reference list. CONTENT AND KNOWLEDGE Use of literature / evidence of reading Demonstrates exceptionally broad and/or in-depth independent reading from appropriate sources. Choice of sources clearly enhances fulfilment of the assignment objectives. Clear, accurate, systematic application of material with well developed and/or integrated critical appraisal. Evidence of broad and/or in-depth independent reading from appropriate sources. Rationale for choice of sources clear. Clear, accurate, systematic application of material, with consistent, thorough critical appraisal. Evidence of independent reading from a wide range of appropriate sources. Clear, accurate, systematic application of material. Shows developing ability to appraise material critically. Evidence of independent reading from an appropriate range of sources. Sound application of literature. Limited evidence of independent reading. Literature is presented in a descriptive way. Very limited evidence of independent reading and/or inappropriate sources used and/or engagement with the literature very superficial. Little or no evidence of engagement with relevant literature. Quality of sources used Exceptional use made of primary sources, in conjunction with high quality secondary sources. Draws upon current research and / or advanced scholarship. Significant use made of primary sources in conjunction with high quality secondary sources. Draws upon current research and / or advanced scholarship. Uses a balanced combination of primary and higher quality secondary sources. Some sound use of primary sources, but generally reliant on secondary sources. Mostly relies on secondary sources. Use of primary sources limited. Some use of secondary sources, but also draws upon unreliable and / or inappropriate sources. Negligible use of primary sources. Uses unreliable and / or inappropriate sources. Content and range of knowledge displayed Demonstrates an exceptionally comprehensive, detailed and in-depth knowledge base, the capacity to integrate theoretical and substantive knowledge, and a developed understanding of the limits to knowledge. Demonstrates a detailed, systematic, in-depth, theoretically informed knowledge base, with a clear appreciation of the provisional nature of knowledge Demonstrates a comprehensive, well-organised theoretical and/or substantive knowledge base, and a developing appreciation of the limits of knowledge Demonstrates a sound factual and/or conceptual knowledge base and uses appropriate terminology. Evidence of adequate knowledge of topic and use of appropriate terminology. Some relevant / required knowledge missing or confused and / or significant misuse of terminology Little or no relevant knowledge included Knowledge and application of theory Knowledge and understanding of theory is exceptionally detailed and sophisticated. Appreciation of the limits of theory demonstrated throughout the work. Approach to assessment task is clearly, appropriately and consistently theoretically informed. Demonstrates a detailed, accurate, systematic theoretical understanding. Appropriately selected theoretical knowledge is integrated into the overall assessment task. Shows a systematic and accurate understanding of key theories, which are appropriately applied within the context of the assessment task. Sound descriptive knowledge of key theories with some appropriate application. Selection of theory is satisfactory but application and/or understanding limited. Knowledge of theory inaccurate and/or incomplete. Choice of theory inappropriate. Application and/or understanding very limited. Absence of relevant theoretical content and/or use of theory. THINKING / ANALYSIS / CONCLUSION Conclusions Conclusions exceptionally well developed and show considerable originality. They form an integrated part of the overall argument and/or discussion, reflecting commanding grasp of theory and/or evidence and/or literature and appropriate forms of conceptualisation. Conclusions well developed, analytical, and show some originality. They are thoroughly grounded in theory and/or evidence and/or literature and use appropriate forms of conceptualisation, forming an integrated part of overall argument and/or discussion. Conclusions show some development and critical insight, and relate clearly and logically to evidence and/or theory and/or literature. Sound conclusions are drawn which are clearly derived from evidence and/or theory and/or literature. Adequate conclusions are drawn which are derived from limited understanding of evidence and/or theory and/or literature. Limited or ineffective attempt to draw together arguments. Lack of conclusions, or unsubstantiated and/or invalid conclusions drawn. Critical reasoning Sophisticated, critical evaluation of theories / concepts / assumptions / data which informs the overall approach taken to the assignment. Arguments are clear, coherent, tenable, and demonstrate originality Well developed, theoretically / conceptually informed critical thinking is consistently integrated into the work. Arguments demonstrate the ability to evaluate theories / concepts / assumptions / data Demonstrates good critical insight and ability to contrast alternative positions through the use of theory. Demonstrates conventional critical insight and ability to contrast alternative positions Demonstrates limited critical insight. Recognises alternative positions Critical thought / analysis very limited and / or incoherent. . No evidence of critical thought. PRACTICAL / INTERPERSONAL SKILLS Information gathering / processing Uses initiative to seek out new sources of information, evaluates their validity against existing information and organises them effectively Selects highly relevant information. Demonstrates understanding of the complexity of the information and processes it effectively. Selects appropriate information and processes it effectively. Selects mostly appropriate information and processes it adequately. Selects some appropriate information, and processes some of it adequately. Random information gathering. Inappropriate use of processing tools. Fails to collect appropriate data in any systematic way.

These learning outcomesMUST blend into the dissertation topic or writing. Address the learning outcomes and demonstrate a systematic approach to literature.

1. Effectively use a wide range of information sources to extract and analyse relevant information
2. Synthesise and apply information from a number of sources to develop a reasoned argument
3. Analyse and apply the findings from contemporary evidence to current issues in professional practice
4. Exercise autonomy and initiative in tackling tasks and problems and weighing alternative interpretations, arguments and values.

How to write the assignment: THIS INCLUDE

SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWA LITERATURE/ARTICLE
USING A FRAMEWORKS TO CRITIQUE RESEARCH (E.G CORMACK)
THEMES
CRITICAL ANALYSE
SYNTHESIS
CREATIVITY

Introduction (has been done pls see appendix 1)
In this section you will be expected to give an overview of the topic that you have chosen and how it fits in to the overall impact of health and social care provision. This provides context for the dissertation in terms of the broader social, political and health care environments and agendas and a justification in relation to dissertation topic. The introduction needs to be sinscint.

Review of published material (about 3000 words)

In order to address the state of knowledge within your topic area you will need to identify and present the findings from various sources of evidence. These might include:

• Empirical (actual) research
• Policies and guidelines (national and local ( e.g RCOG, NICE GUILDLINES, BJM, CMACE,WHO, )
THIS DESSERTATION IS A SYSTEMATICLITERATURE REVIEW

All essays must include contemporary research and a comparable amount of policy or guidance documents. You should not ignore any major policies, reviews or research in your area of interest. Give an overview of the topic, justify why you choose the topic, why is that issue important, where does it stands in term of international basis and also how things has changes.

The policy documents should be used to contextualise the discussion of what happens in practice now, what should happen in practice now and what should happen in practice in the future?

The other sources of evidence may inform the review throughout its different stages. Consideration should however be given to the quality of these sources as form of evidence and whether they should be used to inform professional practice.

Discussion and conclusions (about 1150 words)

This is your opportunity to pull together the ideas and themes that have emerged from your review of different sources of evidence in your area of interest. Special consideration should be given at this stage as to how the different evidence either fits together or perhaps contradicts each other. At this stage it is important to reflect on the quality of the evidence from the review.

The conclusion itself will be a paragraph or so about what ultimately you have found. This will then be followed by a brief discussion about what actually happens in practice now. This then leads into the need to suggest areas for further research or policy changes that appear to be required given what you

Appendix 1: INTRODUCTION( THIS IS MY ORGINAL WORK, CONTINUE WITH THE LITERATURE R\V, DISCUSSIONS, RECCOMDENTION AND CONCLUSION)

The Effect of Active Management of the Third Stage of Labour on Maternal Morbidity and Mortality

The third stage of labour consists of period following the delivery of the neonate, up until the subsequent expulsion of the placenta and its attached membranes (Macdonald and Magill-Cuerden, 2011).This stage can be accompanied by complications and if not managed safely, this can lead to maternal morbidity and mortality ( Gulmezoglu et al,2012). Therefore, effective management during this stage remains a critical component of the delivery process (Abalos, 2012).
There are two ways of managing third stage of labour which is active and physiological (expectant) management(Matar et al, 2010). According to Darrent valley Hospital (DVH) Trust policy (2012) active management should involve the use of uterotonic drugs prior to the delivery of the placenta and membranes, clamping and cutting the cord within three minutes following the birth of the neonate and also delivery the placenta by control cord traction. The active management is recommended by National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2011) because it reduces the risk of post-partum haemorrhage and shortens the third stage of labour. This is supported by systematic review, which reveals that, there is a significant reduction of primary blood loss greater than 700mls in a population of women at risk of post-partum haemorrhage (Begley et al, 2011).Nevertheless postpartum haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality, it occurs in about 10.5% of birth and account for over 13 000 maternal mortality annually (WHO, 2007).As a result, the routine use of active management is widely recommended .This care strategy is in contrast to expectant management, which involves waiting for signs of placenta separation that enable the placenta to be delivered spontaneously by maternal effort and through the use of gravity (Prendiville et al., 2009). Moreover, the cord should not be clamped until pulsation has ceased (RCOG, 2011). The proposed advantages of active management include a reduced risk of significant postpartum haemorrhage, as well as its assumed benefits in hospitals with lower resources, where delivery-related deaths are far more common (Alfaifel, 2012). However, some debate exists as to the efficacy of this strategy versus expectant management, and some of the benefits of active management have been called into question by leading researchers in the field ( Breathnach& Geary, 2009). Furthermore, the potential dangers involved with uterine-relaxing agents, risks associated with cord-clamping and risks associated with controlled cord traction. Stanton et al (2009), demonstrated the lack of knowledge of effective active management strategies in low-resource countries such as Nicaragua and India has limited the effectiveness of this approach; while subsequently increasing the risk of mortality to the mother. Therefore, further research is needed to explore the potential use of this approach in both low- and high-resource areas alike (Stanton et al., 2009).
Consequently, the aim of writing this topic is to systematically review how active third stage impact on women morbidity and mortality; and also to assess the effectiveness of active versus expectant management. Drawing on contemporary empirical studies, this dissertation seeks to explore the practical and theoretical implications of active management, as well as advantage and disadvantage of this approach in applied settings. Policies and guideline regarding the strategies will be discussed and both local and international active management research will be considered. Gaps in literature will be highlighted throughout, and recommendations will be provided.

APPENDIX 3: MARKING GRADE

Assessment grading criteria: Professional; Development for Midwifery Practice: Level 6
CRITERION 100-80
Excellent 79-70
Very good 69-60
Good 59-50
Sound 49-40
Satisfactory 39-20
Fail 19-0
Fail
PRESENTATION AND STYLE
Coherence and organisation of assignment Exceptional organisation and coherence clearly enhances the work. Strong logical organisation and coherence enhances fulfilment of the assignment objectives. Demonstrates logical organisation and coherence. Demonstrates sound, conventional organisation. Shows limited organisation. Poorly presented and structured but partially understandable. Disorganised and/or incoherent.

Clarity of expression (incl. accuracy, spelling, grammar, punctuation Exceptional writing control, appropriate to assignment, which enhances the argument. Grammar and spelling accurate. Fluent writing style appropriate to the assignment. Grammar and spelling accurate. Language fluent. Grammar and spelling mainly accurate. Meaning clear, but language not always fluent. Grammar and/or spelling contain errors. Generally understandable, but language contains errors which detract from the argument. Meaning often unclear and/or frequent errors in grammar and/or spelling. Meaning unclear. Poor spelling, grammar and punctuation.
CONFORMING TO INSTRUCTIONS
Attention to purpose Addresses the purpose of the assignment comprehensively and imaginatively. Addresses the full purpose of the assignment with some creativity. Addresses the main purpose of the assignment effectively. Addresses the main purpose of the assignment. Some of the work is focused on the aims and themes of the assignment. Mostly fails to address the task set. Fails to address the task set.
Referencing Sources used are acknowledged in the text and reference list and used fluently to support discussion. Referencing follows a systematic approach, appropriate to the discipline. All elements of individual references are present. Sources used are acknowledged in the text and reference list and used effectively to support discussion. Referencing follows a systematic approach, appropriate to the discipline. All elements of individual references are present. Sources used are acknowledged in the text and reference list and used to support discussion. Referencing follows a systematic approach, appropriate to the discipline. All elements of individual references are present. Sources used are acknowledged in the text and reference list. Referencing follows a systematic approach, appropriate to the discipline. Most elements of individual references are present. Sources of information acknowledged but integration between text and reference list is inconsistent. Attempts to follow systematic approach, appropriate to the discipline. Some elements of individual references may be incomplete and/or absent. Some sources of information acknowledged but links between text and reference list unclear. Referencing does not follow a systematic approach. Elements of individual references are incomplete and/or absent. Little or no acknowledgement of sources of information in text and/or reference list.
CONTENT AND KNOWLEDGE
Use of literature / evidence of reading Demonstrates exceptionally broad and/or in-depth independent reading from appropriate sources. Choice of sources clearly enhances fulfilment of the assignment objectives. Clear, accurate, systematic application of material with well developed and/or integrated critical appraisal. Evidence of broad and/or in-depth independent reading from appropriate sources. Rationale for choice of sources clear. Clear, accurate, systematic application of material, with consistent, thorough critical appraisal. Evidence of independent reading from a wide range of appropriate sources. Clear, accurate, systematic application of material. Shows developing ability to appraise material critically. Evidence of independent reading from an appropriate range of sources. Sound application of literature. Limited evidence of independent reading. Literature is presented in a descriptive way. Very limited evidence of independent reading and/or inappropriate sources used and/or engagement with the literature very superficial. Little or no evidence of engagement with relevant literature.

Quality of sources used Exceptional use made of primary sources, in conjunction with high quality secondary sources. Draws upon current research and / or advanced scholarship. Significant use made of primary sources in conjunction with high quality secondary sources. Draws upon current research and / or advanced scholarship. Uses a balanced combination of primary and higher quality secondary sources. Some sound use of primary sources, but generally reliant on secondary sources. Mostly relies on secondary sources. Use of primary sources limited. Some use of secondary sources, but also draws upon unreliable and / or inappropriate sources. Negligible use of primary sources. Uses unreliable and / or inappropriate sources.
Content and range of knowledge displayed Demonstrates an exceptionally comprehensive, detailed and in-depth knowledge base, the capacity to integrate theoretical and substantive knowledge, and a developed understanding of the limits to knowledge. Demonstrates a detailed, systematic, in-depth, theoretically informed knowledge base, with a clear appreciation of the provisional nature of knowledge Demonstrates a comprehensive, well-organised theoretical and/or substantive knowledge base, and a developing appreciation of the limits of knowledge Demonstrates a sound factual and/or conceptual knowledge base and uses appropriate terminology. Evidence of adequate knowledge of topic and use of appropriate terminology. Some relevant / required knowledge missing or confused and / or significant misuse of terminology Little or no relevant knowledge included
Knowledge and application of theory Knowledge and understanding of theory is exceptionally detailed and sophisticated. Appreciation of the limits of theory demonstrated throughout the work. Approach to assessment task is clearly, appropriately and consistently theoretically informed. Demonstrates a detailed, accurate, systematic theoretical understanding. Appropriately selected theoretical knowledge is integrated into the overall assessment task.

Shows a systematic and accurate understanding of key theories, which are appropriately applied within the context of the assessment task. Sound descriptive knowledge of key theories with some appropriate application.
Selection of theory is satisfactory but application and/or understanding limited. Knowledge of theory inaccurate and/or incomplete. Choice of theory inappropriate. Application and/or understanding very limited. Absence of relevant theoretical content and/or use of theory.

THINKING / ANALYSIS / CONCLUSION
Conclusions Conclusions exceptionally well developed and show considerable originality. They form an integrated part of the overall argument and/or discussion, reflecting commanding grasp of theory and/or evidence and/or literature and appropriate forms of conceptualisation. Conclusions well developed, analytical, and show some originality. They are thoroughly grounded in theory and/or evidence and/or literature and use appropriate forms of conceptualisation, forming an integrated part of overall argument and/or discussion. Conclusions show some development and critical insight, and relate clearly and logically to evidence and/or theory and/or literature. Sound conclusions are drawn which are clearly derived from evidence and/or theory and/or literature. Adequate conclusions are drawn which are derived from limited understanding of evidence and/or theory and/or literature. Limited or ineffective attempt to draw together arguments. Lack of conclusions, or unsubstantiated and/or invalid conclusions drawn.
Critical reasoning Sophisticated, critical evaluation of theories / concepts / assumptions / data which informs the overall approach taken to the assignment. Arguments are clear, coherent, tenable, and demonstrate originality Well developed, theoretically / conceptually informed critical thinking is consistently integrated into the work. Arguments demonstrate the ability to evaluate theories / concepts / assumptions / data Demonstrates good critical insight and ability to contrast alternative positions through the use of theory. Demonstrates conventional critical insight and ability to contrast alternative positions

Demonstrates limited critical insight. Recognises alternative positions Critical thought / analysis very limited and / or incoherent. . No evidence of critical thought.

PRACTICAL / INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
Information gathering / processing Uses initiative to seek out new sources of information, evaluates their validity against existing information and organises them effectively Selects highly relevant information. Demonstrates understanding of the complexity of the information and processes it effectively. Selects appropriate information and processes it effectively. Selects mostly appropriate information and processes it adequately. Selects some appropriate information, and processes some of it adequately. Random information gathering. Inappropriate use of processing tools. Fails to collect appropriate data in any systematic way.

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