Social research final exam

Lesson 8

1. The chief aim of sampling is to be able to select

a. simple random samples

b. a sample whose statistics will accurately portray an unknown population parameter

c. a ample whose parameters will accurately portray an unknown population statistic

d. a sample whose statistics will accurately portray a known population parameter

e. a sample whose unknown statistics will accurately portray a know parameter

2. A study population is

a. the theoretical and hypothetical aggregation of all elements as defined for a given survey

b. the theoretically specified aggregation of survey elements

c. that aggregation of elements from which the sample is actually selected

d. that aggregation or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of sampling

e. that aggregation of elements from which information is collected

3. The unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis is called a(n)

a. universe

b. sampling unit

c. statistic

d. sampling frame

e. element

4. In a situation of perfect homogeneity there is little need to be concerned with careful sampling procedures.

a. Ture

b. False

5. The size of the population must be taken into account when deciding on sample size.

a. True

b. False

6. Non probability sampling

a. always produces samples that possess distorted characteristics relative to the population

b. denies the researche the use of statistical theory to estimate the probability of correct inferences

c. should never be used under any circumstances

d. includes stratified sampling

e. requires the use of sampling frames

7. Sample all the students in your research methods class. What kind of sampling design are you using?

a. simple random sampling

b. quota sampling

c. cluster sampling

d. stratified sampling

e. reliance on available subjects

8. Drawing a judgemental sample

a. allows researchers to use their prior knowledge about the topic.

b. Enlists the aid of uninformed respondents

c. Results in a sample that has no researcher bias

d. Ensures a representative sample.

e. Requires the development of a quota matrix

9. If a field researcher wanted to learn a political organization’s pattern of recruitment over time, the researcher might begin by interviewing a fairly recent recruit and ask who introdused that person to the organization. Then the researcher might interview the person named and ask who introduced that person to the political organization. This would be an example of

a. snowball sampling.

b. Systematic sampling

c. Deviant cases sampling

d. Accidental sampling

e. Quota sampling’

10. Professor Hall was planning to do a field study of hitchhikers. Hall wanted to be sure that persons representing all different age, racial, and sex categories were included in the sample of hitchhikers. What kind of sampling scheme would you recommend?

a. deviant cases.

b. Quota sampling

c. Stratified sampling

d. Snowball sampling

e. Cluter sampling

11. A researcher discovers that in a particular city 10% of the households are headed by a single person and that 90% of the families are husband-wife families. The researcher sends out interviewers an tells them to conduct 80 interviews and that 10% of these interviews should be with families that are headed by a single person, and 90% should be with husband-wife families. This researcher is using

a. simple random sampling

b. quota sampling

c. cluster sampling

d. stratified sampling

e. accidental sampling

12. In general, as sample size increases

a. the standard error increases in size

b. the standard error decreases in size

c. the standard error will remain the same regardless of changes in sample size

d. the standard error is a constant

e. the standard error fluctuates in size

13. Sampling error is reduced through an increase in the sample size and an increased homogeneity of the elements being sampled.

a. True

b. False

14. Probability samples are advantageous to the researcher because

a. the method by which they are selected limits consious and unconscious sampling bias

b. the accuracy or representativeness of the sample can be estimated

c. they are perfectly representative of the population from which they are drawn

d. all of these choices indicate the advantages of probability sampling

e. the method by which they are selected limits conscious and unconscious sampling bias and the accuracy or representativenes of the sample can be estimated

15. A summary description of a given variable in a survey sample is called a

a. variable

b. parameter

c. confidence level

d. confidence interval

e. statistic

16. If two samples of the same size are drawn from the same population using simple random sampling, it follows that they will have the same statistics.

a. True

b. False

17. Generally, the more heterogeneous the population, the more beneficial it is to use stratified sampling.

a. True

b. False

18. Stratification represnets a modification to rather than an alternative to simple random sampling and systematic sampling.

a. True

b. False

19. A stratified sample is more likely to be representative on several variables than is a simple random sample.

a. True

b. False

20. You want to select a sample of 250 people from a population of 30,000. To use the table of random numbers you need to work with a

a. 250 digit number

b. 3- digit number

c. 4- digit number

d. 5- digit number

e. 6- digit number

21. A sampling interval of 5 was used to select a sample from a population of 1000. How many elements are to be in the sample?

a. 5

b. 50

c. 100

d. 200

e. 1000

22. Every kth element in a list is chosen for inclusion in the sample in

a. simple random sampling

b. systematic sampling

c. disproportionate sampling

d. cluster sampling

e. stratified sampling

23. Periodicity is particularly important in

a. Simple random sampling

b. Availability sampling

c. Stratified sampling

d. Quota sampling

e. Systematic sampling

24. You are doing research on hospital personnel-orderlies, technicians, nurses, and doctors. You want to be sure you draw a sample that has cases in each of the personnel categories. You want to use probability sampling/ An appropriate strategy would be

a. simple random sampling

b. quota sampling

c. cluster sampling

d. stratified sampling

e. accidental sampling

25. Stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample

a. generally occurs when the variables used to stratify are known to be associated with the dependent variable

b. eliminates the need for simple random sampling

c. is most useful for studying a homogeneous population

d. eliminates the need for probabiity sampling

e. is an alternative systematic sampling

26. A disadvantage of stratified sampling is that it

a. denies you the use of probability theory

b. requires you to have some prior knowledge about the elements in the population prior to drawing the sample

c. usually increases the standard error

d. usually requires samples that are larger in size than those required by simple random sampling

e. none of these choices is a disadvantage of stratified sampling

27. Multistage sampling design tend to have smaller sampling errors than single-stage sampling designs..

a. True

b. False

28. To ensure a sufficient number of cases from strta of varying sizes, researchers use.

a. simple random sampling

b. systematic sampling

c. proportionate sampling

d. disproportionate sampling

e. quota sampling

29. Disproportionate sampling and weighting are used by the researcher

a. to ensure a sufficient number of cases in each of the sample subpopulations

b. to give a proportionate representation to each sample element

c. to procide a representative picture of the total population

d. to handle situations involving the errors and approximation that are often inherent in complex, multistage designs

e. all of these choices are correct

30. Professor Alec O. Howlick is studying the incoming (freshmen) student drinking behavior at Boozemen State University in Boozemen, Kansas. Every incoming freshmen is required to have a university email address. After obtaining a list of all incoming freshmen students email addresses, he numbered every email address from 1 to 4,000. Using a random-number table, he obtained a sample of 200 freshman email addresses. He then emailed students requesting them to take an online survey. He also had two follow-up email reminders. A total of 180 students took the online survey.

(1) What is Howlick’s sampling frame?

a. the drinking behavior of students

b. incoming freshmen telephone numbers

c. student freshmen email addresses

d. Boozemen State University

(Page Ref: 225)

(2) What is Drunkman’s population?

a. all students living in Boozemen, Kansas

b. all students enrolled in Boozemen State University

c. students who drink alcohol in Boozemen, Kansas

d. all incoming freshmen at Boozemen State University

(Page Ref: 224)

(3) What type of sampling did Professor Howlick use?

a. stratified random sample

b. simple random sample

c. cluster sample

d. sequential sample

(Page Ref: 227)

Lesson 9

1. An experiment examines the effect of the

a. dependent variable on the independent variable

b. posttest on the pretest

c. cotrol group on the experimental group

d. independent variable on the dependent variable

e. independent variable on the stimulus

2. The experimental and control groups should be comparable on

a. variables that are likely to be related to the independent variable under study

b. variables that are likely to be related to the dependent variable under study

c. age, education, and ethnicity

d. all demographic variables

e. all of these choices

3. Experiments are especially appropriate for research projects involving all of the following EXCEPT

a. small-group interaction

b. hypothesis testing

c. the testing of relatively limited and well-defined concepts and propositions

d. descriptive research

e. explanatory research

4. Among the requirements for the classical experimental design is a posttest measurement of the

a. dependent variable for both the experimental and control groups

b. independent variable for both the experimental and control groups

c. independent variable for the control group only

d. dependent variable for the experimental group only

e. independent variable for the experimental group only

5. The double blind experiment attempts to guard agains experimenter bias

a. True

b. False

6. The double-blind experiment is one in which

a. the experimenters do not know which is the experimental group and which is the control group

b. the experimental subjects do not know that they are in the experimental group, and the control group subjects know that they are in the control group

c. neither the subjects in the experimental or control groups not the experimenters know which are the experimental and control groups

d. the control group subjects do not know that they are in the control group, and the experimental group subjects know that they are in the experimental group

e. the experimental and control groups are given placebos

7. In a natural experiment, the researcher does NOT manipulate the independent variable.

a. True

b. False

8. The Solomon four-group design

a. combines the classical experimental design with the posttest-only control group design

b. combines the classical experimental design with the pretest-only control group design

c. combines the classical experimental design with the static-group comparison design

d. combines the static-group comparison design with the one-group pretest-posttest design

e. none of these choices are correct

9. The difference between the experimental and control group should be:

a. the experimental group receives the dependent variable and the control group does not

b. the experimental group receives the independent variable and the control group does not

c. the control group receives the dependent variable and the experimental groups does not

d. the control group receives the independent variable and the experimental group does not

e. nothing since both receive the independent variable

10. The question of internal validity refers to

a. the comparison of the results obtained for the experimental group with those obtained for the control group

b. whether the experimental stimulus really affected the dependent variable

c. the determination of the proper time to do the posttest

d. the determination of the proper time to do the pretest

11. The problem of external validity refers to the generalizability of results

a. True

b. False

12.Yolanda wanted to test the effectiveness of a new 4-hour anger management treatment session. She first took 24 clients who had been referred for anger management (pre-test) in March and divided them randomly into two groups. One group was assigned to the new 4-hour session, the other group went to a traditional anger management session. Each was given an in-take assessment measuring anger management skills. After clients finished the two-week sessions, she measured the level of anger management skills among all clients in both groups. What experimental design did she use?

a. classical experiment

b. one-shot case study

c. time series

d. static group comparison

(Page Ref: 254-255)

13. Dr. Henrietta Bootsma designed and produced a 30 second radio commercial for a local automobile dealer. Next, she had the three most widely listened to radio stations in town play the commercial 15 times a day, everyday, for two weeks. She waited until the end of the two-week period, then she called Jack to see what his sales had been lately. What experimental design did she use?

a. classical experiment

b. one-shot case study

c. time series

d. static group comparison

(Page Ref: 255)

14. It has been discovered that researchers will often unknowingly treat the experimental group differently then the control group. To minimize this threat to internal validity, research will often direct research assistants (who don’t know who is in the experimental and control groups) to administer the experimental treatment. This is often called:

a. double-blind experiment

b. double-barreled experiment

c. triple-shop post-test only experiment

d. classical experimental design

(Page Ref: 264)