In “Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism,” J.J.C. Smart argues that restricted utilitarianism is incoherent. (Smart uses “utilitarianism” in exactly the way we’ve been using “consequentialism.”) Write a one-page, double-spaced essay that:
(a) Explains the distinction between extreme and restricted utilitarianism
(b) Explains Smart’s argument against restricted utilitarianism.
Smart’s essay is reprinted in The Ethical Life.
According to consequentialism, happiness is the only intrinsic value. Happiness, in turn, is a subjective experience: we are happy when we feel pleasure, fulfillment, or excitement; we are unhappy when we feel pain, disappointment, or boredom. In “The Experience Machine,” Robert Nozick argues that happiness is not the only intrinsic value. Read pages 33-35 from The Ethical Life. Write a one-page, double-spaced essay that accomplishes three tasks:
(a) Explain Nozick’s experience machine.
(b) What, besides happiness, does Nozick think is an intrinsic value?
(c) How does Nozick use the experience machine to argue that the value you identified in (b) is intrinsically good?