Paper: Christ-centered kingship and the relationship of Church and state
The primary object of the paper is to see what you can learn about Ottonian kingship and the relationship of Church and state by analyzing visual imagery on the basis of what you have learned in class and in the readings assigned about the Carolingian and Ottonian Empires.
In a 6 page double-spaced, typed essay discuss the growing emphasis on Christ-centered kingship by comparing 9th century images of Carolingian emperors with the images of 11th century Ottonian emperors. Concentrate on the three Ottonian images of Emperor Otto III in the Aachen Evangelary and the Gospel of Otto III as well as on his successor, Emperor Henry II, in the Sacramentary of Henry II.
What do these images, as visual texts, express about the Ottonian concept of kingship? Compare them with one another. How are they similar, but most importantly how are they different? Also compare the three Ottonian images of emperors with the Carolingian metal cover of the Codex Aureus and the Ottonian Lothar Cross.
You should refer to and cite the primary and secondary readings in the course reader and other images on blackboard for the Carolingian and Ottonian periods, but do not consult any additional secondary sources. The readings should provide a starting point for thinking about kingship and the relationship of Church and state and, thus, help in analyzing the three images of Ottonian emperors. Nonetheless, the message that is to be derived from these Ottonian images is to be found in the imagery itself.
Also consider the following primary texts and a few facts about the images which should help in your interpretation:
The scroll carried by the monk on the page facing Otto III in the Aachen Evangelary states, ?May God clothe your heart with this book O august Otto, remember Liuthar from whom you received it.? The men beside the throne are dukes in his kingdom. This image may celebrate Otto?s coronation as Holy Roman Emperor on Ascension day. The figure holding up the Otto?s throne is a personification of the Earth. Saint Augustine in his exposition of Psalm 91 stated in regard to Christ and the Church, ?Never fear when thou dost imitate Christ? Christ is the head and the Body is the Church?His head is in heaven. His feet on earth.? (St. Augustine: Exposition on the Book of Psalms, ed. P. Schaff, (Oxford, 1888), Psalm 91)
On the page facing Otto III in the Gospel of Otto III notice the order of the female personifications who represent the areas of the Holy Roman Empire around the year 1000. How does this visual imagery compare with Gerbert?s letter of 996 to Otto III? ?Ours is the Roman empire! Italy rich in fruits and Gaul and Germany fertile in warriors make for the empire?s strength, and the powerful kingdoms of the Slavs are also behind us. Caesar, you are out august emperor of the Romans.? (Gerbert?s letter from P. Rich?, The Carolingians, (Philadelphia, 1993), p. 353.)
In the coronation scene of the Sacramentary of Henry II, Saints Emmeram of Regensburg and Udalric of Augsburg hold up Henry II?s arms. Henry holds the Holy Lance, believed to have been used to pierce Christ?s side at the crucifixion. This relic had been acquired by Otto III?s grandfather.
Each of these Ottonian emperors would have been anointed with the oil of sanctification on his head, his right arm and his shoulders, ?in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit." He was reminded that he was anointed just as Old Testament kings and prophets were anointed and as Samuel anointed David to rule and govern. He was then vested in the imperial robes. The sword was given him, probably with these words, "Receive this sword at the hands of the bishops." The sceptre and orb are given him, probably with the words, "Receive this rod of virtue and equity." Finally the crown was set on his head with the words, "Receive this royal crown." The emperor took the following oath: "I promise and pledge in the sight of God to defend the Roman Church and swear fealty to the Pope…." Then the king is enthroned with the words, "Stand fast and hold firmly," and the Laudes Regiae were sung. (R. Woolley, Coronation Rites, p. 42-51.)
E. Kantorowicz, Laudes Regiae, pp. 14-17, 76-83.
Charlemagne & Pope Leo I; ed. P. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization p.55.
Einhard, ?Charlemagne,?ed. P. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, 32-43.
E. Sears, ?Louis the Pious as Miles Christi: The Dedicatory Image in Hrabanus Maurus?s De Laudibus sanctae crucis,? Charlemagne?s Heir, ed. Godman and Collins, pp. 605-607, 623-628.
The Bible: Psalms 91(90), Ephesians 6.
The Coronation of Charles the Bald, ed. P. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, pp.443-445.
Sedulius Scottus, On Christian Rulers, ed. P. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, pp.
Nithard?s History (Charles the Bald), ed. P. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, pp. 333-35, 357.
R. Deshman, ?The Exalted Servant: the Ruler Theology of the Prayerbook of Charles the Bald,? Viator 11 (1980), pp. 384-407,412-417.
2 Samuel 11; 12:1-15. Psalm 51 (50).
R. Stalley, Early Medieval Architecture, pp. 53-57.
A. Cohen, ?Bernward and Eve at Hildesheim,? Gesta 40(2001):19-38.
R. Deshman, ?Christus rex,? Fruhmittelalterliche Studien, pp. 374-377, 387-390.
J. Strayer, The Middle Ages, 154-156.
Rodulfus Glaber, ?Henry II?s Golden Sphere,? Early Medieval Art, ed. C. Davis-Weyer, p. 119.