Organizational Behavior Principles – PowerPoint
Organizational Behavior Principles – PowerPoint
Leadership and Its Impact
A good leader demonstrates several important qualities that contribute to the success or failure of an organization. Leaders are involved in organizational change and are integral in impacting organizational behavior. Good leaders also know how to lead people and teams by leading by example and through motivational techniques. In this unit, we will look at the impact leaders have on organizational behavior, leadership impact on groups and teams, motivational efforts.
The field of organizational behavior is concerned with the actions of people at work in organizations. By focusing on individual- and group-level concepts, organizational behavior seeks to explain, predict, and influence behavior. Because they get things done through other people, managers will be more effective if they have an understanding of behavior.
People seek consistency between their attitudes and their behavior. They seek to reconcile different attitudes and to align their attitudes and behavior so they appear rational and consistent. They also seek consistency to reduce the level of cognitive dissonance or discomfort they feel when their attitudes and behaviors aren’t aligned. Managers can shape employee behavior by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves the employee closer to the desired behavior.
Formal groups are work groups established by the organization that have designated work assignments and specific tasks. Informal groups are social groups that occur naturally in the workplace in response to the need for social contact.
The advantages of group decision making are more complete information, more alternatives, increased acceptance of a solution, and greater legitimacy. The disadvantages include the amount of time it takes, the likelihood of being dominated by a minority, the pressure to conform, and the blurring of responsibility.
Teams have become increasingly popular in organizations because they build esprit de corps, free up management to do more strategic thinking, permit more flexible decision making, utilize workforce diversity, and usually increase performance. Effective work teams are characterized by clear goals, members with relevant skills, mutual trust among members, unified commitment, good communication, adequate negotiating skills, appropriate leadership, and external and internal support.
Managers can build trust by communicating openly; supporting team members’ ideas; being respectful, fair, and predictable; and demonstrating competence.
Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need. The motivation process begins with an unsatisfied need, which creates tension, and drives an individual to search for goals that, if attained, will satisfy the need and reduce the tension.
Management practices that are likely to lead to more motivated employees include recognizing individual differences, matching people to jobs, using goals, ensuring that employees perceive goals as attainable, individualizing rewards, linking rewards to performance, checking the reward system for equity, and realizing that money is an important incentive.
Managers are appointed. Their ability to influence is based on the formal authority inherent in their positions. In contrast, leaders may either be appointed or emerge from within a group. Leaders can influence others to perform beyond the actions dictated by formal authority. Leaders can create a culture of trust by practicing openness, being fair, sharing feelings, telling the truth, showing consistency, fulfilling promises, maintaining confidences, and demonstrating competence.
There are five sources of power a leader might possess: legitimate (power of position in the organization), coercive (power based on the ability to punish or control), reward (power to give positive benefits or rewards), expert (power based on expertise, special skills, or knowledge), and referent (power that arises because of a person’s desirable resources or personal traits).
Transformational Leadership, Part 1
In recent decades, changes in the overall marketplace and the workplace have resulted in the need for leaders to become more transformational if they are to remain effective. Unlike the traditional leadership theories that emphasized rational processes, the transformational theory emphasizes emotions and values. It also acknowledges the importance of symbolic behavior and the leader’s role in making events meaningful for followers. In addition, it captures the essence of influence, whereby leaders influence followers to make self-sacrifices, commit to difficult objectives, and achieve much more than initially expected (Bass, 1999).
Bass (1985) defined transformational leadership basically in terms of the leader’s affect on followers and the actual behavior used to accomplish the effect. Conversely, Shamir (1999) defined it as including individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence (which is cited as charisma), and inspirational motivation. Essentially, transformational leadership, according to Bass (1999), refers to
[the] leader moving the followers beyond their self-interest through idealized influence (charisma), inspiration, intellectual stimulation, or individualized consideration. It elevates the followers’ level of maturity and ideals, and concerns for achievement, self-actualization, and the well-being of others.
Transformational leaders create a desired future that supports the followers’ ideals and concerns, which followers seek to identify with the leader. These leaders promote intellectual stimulation by helping followers to become more innovative and creative. On the other hand, the transformational leader, fostering a leader-employee relationship, displays individualized consideration when he/she pays close attention to the developmental needs of followers by actively supporting and coaching followers’ development (Bass, 1999).
The leader-employee relationship is one of mutual stimulation and is characterized by four factors: charisma, inspiration, individual consideration, and intellectual stimulation (DeLuga, 1988). DeLuga (1988) suggested that charisma, reflecting the leader’s ability to generate great symbolic power that employees desire to identify with, is the fundamental factor in the transformational process. The second factor, inspiration, describes how the leader passionately communicates a future, idealistic organization that can be shared. The third factor that contributes to mutual stimulation is individual consideration, which distinguishes the leader’s mission to serve as a mentor to an employee. The last of the four factors is intellectual stimulation; the transformational leader encourages employees to approach old and familiar problems differently. In essence, transformational leadership theory employs mutual stimulation to achieve the organizational mission.
Similar to DeLuga (1988), Avolio, Waldman, and Yammarino (1991) advocated that leaders should display four distinct attributes that they labeled the Four I’s: individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. In their analysis, the researchers posited that individualized consideration presumes each individual has specific needs that are subject to change over time, basically, due to the influence of the leader. Therefore, the transformational leader must be able to diagnose and properly evaluate the needs of each follower and then elevate the follower so the optimum potential can be achieved.
Avolio, B., Waldman, D., & Yammarino, F. (1991). Leading in the 1990s: The four I’s of transformational leadership. Journal of European Industrial Training, 14(4), 9–16.
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership, psychology and organizational behavior. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Bass, B. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 9–32.
DeLuga, R. (1988). Relationship of transformational and transactional leadership with employee influencing strategies. Group & Organizational Studies, 13(4).
Project Change Leadership
Effective and efficient implementation of change within the organization requires and well-thought out and documented change plan. Models have been developed to provide high-level guidance of the steps needed in the change plan process. Two such models are the force field model and the planned organizational change model. Let’s review the key phases in each of these models.
Force Field Model
One of the most widely used change process models is known as the force field model. This model is based on Lewin’s change process theories. It proposes three phases in change process implementation:
•Unfreeze: Executive team builds awareness that change within the organization is imminent and necessary for the continued success of the organization.
•Change: Change is implemented into the organization. A well-designed action plan is needed for change to be incorporated into the organization.
•Refreeze: New processes, standards, traditions, values, and attitudes are accepted and integrated into the organization.