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Howard University The Graduate School Thesis and Dissertation Manual MUST APPLY TO PAPER AT ALL TIMES: Turnitin.com – A Research Resource Tool Through the Center for Excellence in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment (CETLA) Howard University subscribes to Turnitin.com. This is a research resource tool that teaches the planning, organizational, and citation skills essential for producing quality writing and research. One of the assessment tools included is a plagiarism detection service. This will help the thesis/dissertation author to determine the originality of texts based on comparisons with the Turnitin internal database. All thesis/dissertation authors must submit an electronic version of their document to the Turnitin.com site and generate a Turnitin Originality Report. When you submit the oral defense request, the Originality Report must be attached. Fair Use Your thesis/dissertation will likely include quotations, pictures, charts, standard tests, or other materials. If a large portion of another author’s work is used, you must obtain written permission. Using someone’s material without permission is considered infringement of copyright and can be the basis of legal action against you. Copyright law provides a right of “fair use” that allows limited copying without consent. Excerpts of up to 150 words are generally considered “fair use.” Before using another author’s work, writers are advised to review the copyright law as it relates to the fair use of a copyrighted work. FORMATING MLA and APA reference styles, the documentation style suggested by The Chicago Manual of Style (14th edition), and the citation systems of leading journals in your field are acceptable styles. The following five styles of documentation are widely used in scholarly writing. Endnotes, with numbered citations in the text keyed to documentation notes placed at the end of chapters and bibliographic listings at the end of the text. Footnotes, with number citations in the text keyed to documentation notes placed at the bottom of the page where they occur and bibliographic listings at the back of the text. Author-date citations, author’s name, publication date, and page numbers placed in the text, with full documentation/bibliographic data in a list at the end of the text. Parenthetical citations, author’s name and page number placed in parentheses in the text, with full documentation/bibliographic data in a list at the end of the text. Internet and electronic source citations, the style manual (APA, MLA, The Chicago Manual of Style, etc.) used in your discipline will list the preferred method of citing information from an electronic source. It is important to cite the author, date (if known), title, source, medium, and how the information is available, with full documentation/bibliographic data in a list at the end of the text. ** THE ATTACHED PAPER IS MY PROPOSAL ** (NEEDS TO BE EXTENDED AND PUT INTO THE CORRECT CATEGORIES/FORMAT) * (NEW INFO- FOR EXAMPLE: Federal officials must help Kansas and Arizona enforce laws requiring new voters to document their US citizenship, I guess it’s similar to Georgia, Alabama. This is on the internet 3//19/14 THURGOOD MARSHALL IN HISTORY REGARDING THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT JUSTICE GINSBURGH IMPACTS ON MINORITIES AND IMMIGRANTS, UNDERPRIVLIGED AND MIDDLE CLASSES DISADVANTAGES BECAUSE OF THIS ACT NOT GETTING REVOTED , ETC… There are certain basic elements which all academic proposals are expected to contain: (a) a brief introduction; (b) a statement of the problem or purpose; (c) a brief review of the literature; (d) a theoretical or conceptual framework for the study; (e) a thesis/dissertation question, research question, or hypothesis; and (f) a statement of the methodology to be used. Several other elements which may appear in a proposal, but which are optional and will depend on need, style, and scope of the study, are statements concerning the “Limitations of the Study,” “Definition of Terms,” “Background and/or Historical Information.” The length of the six areas listed above and the manner in which they are ordered will depend on the topic chosen and the manual that is being used. The Abstract An abstract, which is a summary or synopsis of a longer work, is defined in terms of the purpose that it serves. In the process of acquiring their degrees, candidates may write many abstracts; however, two abstracts are required by the Graduate School, depending on the degree being pursued: At the Master’s level, an abstract must be submitted with the appropriate forms as part of the request for a final oral examination. At the Ph.D. level, an abstract must be submitted with the appropriate forms as part of the request for a final oral examination. The abstract is to be included as a part of each final thesis or dissertation. Although requirements and space dictate the length of an abstract, each academic abstract should contain the following: (a) the problem being studied and its resulting thesis/dissertation, research question, or hypothesis; (b) the methodology and statistics, where appropriate; (c) the results or findings; and (d) the conclusions, discussion, implications, and recommendations, if any. Consistent with publishing specifications, the maximum number of words in an abstract should be 150 words for a thesis and 350 words for a dissertation. Table of Contents The Table of Contents is the only index of your thesis/dissertation. It reveals the nature and course of your research and the method you have chosen to present the results of your work. For theses/dissertations submitted to the Graduate School, the chapter is the basic unit of division, with subdivisions where appropriate. Use either the heading scheme or the decimal system to organize the chapter sections. (See Examples #3 and #4 in the Appendix.) The organization scheme of your work must match the scheme displayed in the text. The system of indenting you use in the Table of Contents to indicate subdivisions within chapters must match the subdivision system in the chapters. The title of each entry must correspond exactly to the title listed in the text. Use dot leaders (. . .) to connect the last word of each entry to the page numbers. All preliminary pages are listed in the Table of Contents. (If you have included the copyright page in your thesis/dissertation, it is not listed.) The use of dot leaders (the dots on each line of the Table of Contents connecting the headings of the page numbers) is required. The dots in the leader must line up appropriately at the end of each line of the Table of Contents. Most word processing software includes a feature for creating a Table of Contents that includes dot leaders. Most word processing packages can create a Table of Contents with dot leaders, from the headings in a document. For Microsoft Word, you use styles to create the different headings. For example, set heading 1 (for Chapter Titles), heading 2 (for level two headings), heading 3 (for level 3 headings) and heading 4 for (level 4 headings). When you type the heading, select the appropriate heading style based on the level of heading. When you generate the Table of Contents, not only will the headings be exact, the page numbers also will be exact. If you revise the document, regenerate the Table of Contents and the headings and page numbers will be updated. However, this feature works differently depending on which software package you use. All entries and page numbers must match the text exactly. Please double-check these details for accuracy. Bibliographies and Reference Lists All sources cited in the text must be carefully listed in your reference section. This reference section will be titled “References” or “Bibliography” and will be placed at the end of the text. Carefully select an established reference style appropriate for your field of study. This list allows anyone reading your work to view the scope of your research. A mistake many degree candidates make is that the citations in the text do not match the reference list or bibliography. Even when they include all the citations, sometimes the names are spelled differently, the dates are different, or they do not include all the required bibliographical information. The easiest and most professional way to accomplish this is to use a reference management software package, such as EndNote, Reference Manager, or the like. The alternative is to proof the document with the thesis/dissertation on the left and the reference/bibliography on the right. As you read the document, check the citations against the reference section or the bibliography. The Appendix The Appendix will contain additional illustrative material such as forms, questionnaires, documents, long and complex tables, figures, and computer printouts. This material is not essential to the text but helpful to a reader seeking further clarification. The Appendix is not a repository for data that should appear in the text. When more than one Appendix is used, each must be assigned a letter (Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, etc.) as well as a title. Each appendix with its title must be listed separately in the Table of Contents as a subdivision under the heading APPENDICES. Formatting the Final Copy Order of Pages In the thesis/dissertation, the pages should be ordered as follows: • Title Page • • Abstract • Table of Contents • List of Tables • List of Figures • List of Abbreviations • List of Symbols • Main Body Chapter 1 (which includes an introduction) Chapter 2 Chapter 3 • Appendices • Bibliography/References ** GENERAL OUTLINE FOR RESEARCH DESIGN FOR HOWARD UNIVERSITY ** I. RESEACH DESIGN II. TITLE 1. WHAT ARE THE NEEDS? 2. PURPOSE AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM (SET OUT WHAT YOU’RE TRYING TO DO, WHAT PROBLEM YOUR ATTEMPTING TO SOLVE, OR WHAT PROPOSITIONS YOU SEEK TO PROVE? WHAT NEED WILL THE RESEARCH ATTEMPT TO ADDRESS? 3. DATA NECESSARY TO STUDY THE TOPIC A. TYPE OF DATA NECESSARY ( WHAT INFORMATION DO YOU NEED? B. AVAILABILITY OF DATA: LOCATIONS AND LIMITATIONS C. METHODOLOGY FOR DATA COLLECTION ( HOW WILL YOU COLLECT IT , WHAT PROBLEMS WILL YOU HAVE IN COLLECTING IT, WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF YOUR COLLECTION METHODS?) D. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH ( HOW DOES THE RESEARCH PROJECT CONTRIBUTE TO THE KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, PRACTICE, OR THE FIELD OF POLITICAL SCIENCE?) 4. METHODS OF ANALYZING THE DATA A. DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD (DESCIRIPTIVE, COMPARATIVE, STATISTICAL, CASE STUDY, ETC…) B. UTILITY OF THE METHOD GIVING YOUR DATA AND PURPOSE C. STATEMENT AS TO WHY YOU CHOSE THIS METHOD INSTEAD OF ALTERNATIVE ONES. D. INDICATE SOME PREVIOUS STUDIES WHICH HAVE AND ONLY PUBLISHED STUDIES BY OTHER AUTHORS 5. EXPECTED RESULTS (RESULTS SECTION) A. EXPECTED CONCLUSIONS ( BASED ON WHAT OUVE READ , WHAT DO YOU EXPECT TO FIND?) B. RELEVANCE OF RESULTS (DISCUSSION SECTION) **** (IHAVE BEEN EXCLUDED FROM SUBMITING TO OFFICE TO REGUALTORY RESEARCH AND COMLIANCE BECAUSE: 1. THIS PROJECT WILL NOT INVOLVE HUMANS AS RESEARCH SUBJECTS OR HUMAN DATA 2. THIS PROJECT WILL NOT REQUIRE USE OF VERTEBRATE ANIMAL SUBJECTS 3. THIS PROJECT WILL NOT REQUIRE USE OF RECOMBENT DNA OR PLANTS, BIOHAZARDS OR INFECTIOUS MATERIALS. 4. THIS PROJECT WILL NOT REQUIRE USE OF TRANSFER OF BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION OR MATERIALS, NON- IODIZING RADITATION, TRANSMISSION OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION OR MATERIALS 5. THIS PROJECT WILL NOT REQUIRE USE OF TECHNOLOGY, A PRODUCT, MATERIAL OR DATA OWNED OR TO BE PROVIDED BY A THIRD PARTY. Pagination All pages in the thesis/dissertation must be counted and numbered. The title page is counted but not numbered. The preliminary pages (Committee Approval Form, Dedication, Acknowledgments, etc.) are numbered with small Roman numerals, (ii, iii, iv, etc.). The remaining parts of the thesis/dissertation, including text, illustrations, appendix, and bibliography should be numbered with the appropriate Arabic numerals. All pages of the thesis/dissertation are numbered at the bottom, with the page number centered one-half inch above the bottom edge of the page. Please number pages carefully. Inserted pages using both numerical and alphabetical numbering (for example, 43a) are not acceptable. Margins The top, right, bottom, and left margins must be 1 inch each. Spacing Use standard double-spacing for the text pages such as dedication, acknowledgments, the abstract, and the body of the thesis/dissertation. Single-space items in lists, notes, and lists of tables and figures, but double-space between each entry. (This also applies to the Bibliography section and the Reference section.) Single-space all table headings, all figure captions, and block quotations that are four lines or longer. Indent block quotations one-half inch from both the left and right margins. Double-space between paragraphs. Indent paragraphs consistently. The spacing above and below headings throughout your paper must be consistent. Word Processing Regulations Use 12-point type for all text, including footnotes and endnotes, numbers of tables and figures and captions of tables and figures. A smaller font size may be used within the tables and figures. The font size for the table headings and the figure captions must remain at 12-point. Different fonts and font sizes may be used within the appendices. Limit your font selection to Times New Roman or Helvetica. Italic print may be used for foreign words, for emphasis or titles of publications. Please consult your selected style manual for correct usage of italics or underlining. Center and type in uppercase letters all major section titles on the heading pages, for example, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, ABSTRACT, CHAPTER TITLE, and BIBLIOGRAPHY. Place footnotes at the bottom of the appropriate page, or place endnotes in numerical order at the end of each chapter. Do not split references, bibliographic entries, table headings, or figure captions across two pages. (However, footnotes at the bottom of the page may continue to the following page.) Do not hyphenate the last word in a paragraph or split a word across two pages. No more than two consecutive lines should end with divided words. Divide words as they are in the dictionary. Do not leave a heading as the last line on a page. Do not submit a page with only one line of text. A heading near the bottom of a page must have at least two lines of text beneath it. When the first line of a paragraph appears as the last line on a page, it is referred to as an “orphan” line. When the last line of a paragraph appears as the first line on a page, it is referred to as a “widow” line. To avoid orphan or widow lines, use the “orphan and widow” features of the word processing package. If the word processing package does not have this feature, use a page break to keep at least two lines together, which will result in a wider bottom margin on the previous page. Preparing Illustrations Tables and Figures Tables and figures are types of illustrations which supplement rather than duplicate the material in a text. You must acknowledge the source of any table or figure you reproduce or modify from another author or work. Tables and figures in the text should appear as soon as possible after they are first mentioned. In cases where numerous tables or figures would disrupt the flow of the text, you may group them at the end of the chapter, in the order they were mentioned in the text. If a table or figure is less than half a page, you may integrate it on the page of text. Set it off from the text with at least three spaces above and below. You may also group several small tables or figures on a single page. Follow these guidelines when preparing tables or figures. A table is a columnar arrangement of information organized to save space and convey relationships at a glance. While most tables present quantitative data, some tables consist mainly of words that present quantitative comparisons or descriptive information. The format of the table (e.g., title, numbering, and borders) should be determined by the style manual being used. However, in all instances, the table number and title must be above the table. Position table numbers and headings flush left or centered two lines ABOVE the table. A figure is a graphic illustration, such as a chart, graph, diagram, map, photograph, or plate. Position figure numbers and captions centered two lines BELOW the figure. Give numbers and headings or captions to all tables and figures that appear in the text. Number the tables and figures consecutively throughout the paper, or use a decimal system to number them by chapter. The number and heading or caption should follow the same horizontal or vertical direction as the table or figure. Use the same font type and size for all table numbers and headings and all figure numbers and captions. This font should match that used for the text. You may use different font sizes within the figure or table. The number, heading or caption, and page number of each table or figure must be identical to the number, heading or caption, and page number used in the List of Tables and List of Figures. You may continue with the consecutive numbering system for tables and figures in the appendix, or you may use an appendix numbering system. (The first table in the appendix would be Table A.1; the first figure would be Figure A.1, and so on.) All appendix tables and figures must be listed in the List of Tables or the List of Figures. All tables and figures must fit into the same margin requirements as the text. If you continue a table or a figure onto succeeding pages, both pages are labeled with the word “continued.” Do not repeat the heading or the caption. Oversized tables or figures can be printed sideways (landscape orientation) on the page. However, do not landscape the page number. Print the page number in its usual (portrait) orientation. Tables or figures landscaped on a page should have their top edge near the left margin of the paper. DECIMAL SYSTEM HEADINGS AND SUBHEADINGS. Headings and Subheadings in the Table of Contents 1. TITLE OF FIRST CHAPTER ……………………………………………………………………………………1 1.1. Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………2 1.2. Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………3 1.2.1. Third Level………………………………………………………………………………………………..4 1.2.2. Third Level………………………………………………………………………………………………..5 2. TITLE OF SECOND CHAPTER ………………………………………………………………………………..7 2.1. Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………8 2.2. Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………9 2.2.1. Third Level………………………………………………………………………………………………10 2.2.2. Third Level………………………………………………………………………………………………11 Headings and Subheadings on Text Pages CHAPTER 1. TITLE OF FIRST CHAPTER 1.1 Second Level Heading Title 1.2 Second Level Heading Title 1.2.1 Third Level Heading Title Example No. 3 – Decimal System Headings and Subheadings MULTI-LEVEL SYSTEM FOR HEADINGS AND SUBHEADINGS Headings and Subheadings in the Table of Contents 1. TITLE OF FIRST CHAPTER ……………………………………………………………………………………1 Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………2 Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………3 Third Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………4 Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………….5 Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………….6 Third Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………7 Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………….8 Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………….9 2. TITLE OF SECOND CHAPTER ………………………………………………………………………………10 Second Level……………………………………………………………………………………………………….11 Second Level……………………………………………………………………………………………………….12 Third Level……………………………………………………………………………………………….13 Third Level……………………………………………………………………………………………….14 Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………..15 Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………..16 Headings and Subheadings on Text Pages CHAPTER 1. TITLE OF FIRST CHAPTER Second Level Heading Title Third Level Heading Title Fourth Level Heading Title Example No. 4 – Multi-Level Headings and Subheadings TABLE HEADINGS Decimal System Table 3.1 Title of Table Gender Age 20-25 Age 25-50 Missing Data Total Women 5 10 2 17 Men 10 2 5 17 Total 15 12 7 34

Howard University
The Graduate School Thesis and Dissertation Manual MUST APPLY TO PAPER AT ALL TIMES:

Turnitin.com – A Research Resource Tool
Through the Center for Excellence in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment (CETLA) Howard University subscribes to Turnitin.com. This is a research resource tool that teaches the planning, organizational, and citation skills essential for producing quality writing and research. One of the assessment tools included is a plagiarism detection service. This will help the thesis/dissertation author to determine the originality of texts based on comparisons with the Turnitin internal database. All thesis/dissertation authors must submit an electronic version of their document to the Turnitin.com site and generate a Turnitin Originality Report. When you submit the oral defense request, the Originality Report must be attached.

Fair Use
Your thesis/dissertation will likely include quotations, pictures, charts, standard tests, or other materials. If a large portion of another author’s work is used, you must obtain written permission. Using someone’s material without permission is considered infringement of copyright and can be the basis of legal action against you. Copyright law provides a right of “fair use” that allows limited copying without consent. Excerpts of up to 150 words are generally considered “fair use.” Before using another author’s work, writers are advised to review the copyright law as it relates to the fair use of a copyrighted work.

FORMATING
MLA and APA reference styles, the documentation style suggested by The Chicago Manual of Style (14th edition), and the citation systems of leading journals in your field are acceptable styles.
The following five styles of documentation are widely used in scholarly writing.
Endnotes, with numbered citations in the text keyed to documentation notes placed at the end of chapters and bibliographic listings at the end of the text.
Footnotes, with number citations in the text keyed to documentation notes placed at the bottom of the page where they occur and bibliographic listings at the back of the text. Author-date citations, author’s name, publication date, and page numbers placed in the text, with full documentation/bibliographic data in a list at the end of the text.
Parenthetical citations, author’s name and page number placed in parentheses in the text, with full documentation/bibliographic data in a list at the end of the text.
Internet and electronic source citations, the style manual (APA, MLA, The Chicago Manual of Style, etc.) used in your discipline will list the preferred method of citing information from an electronic source. It is important to cite the author, date (if known), title, source, medium, and how the information is available, with full documentation/bibliographic data in a list at the end of the text.

** THE ATTACHED PAPER IS MY PROPOSAL ** (NEEDS TO BE EXTENDED AND PUT INTO THE CORRECT CATEGORIES/FORMAT) * (NEW INFO- FOR EXAMPLE:

Federal officials must help Kansas and Arizona enforce laws requiring new voters to document their US citizenship, I guess it’s similar to Georgia, Alabama. This is on the internet 3//19/14

THURGOOD MARSHALL IN HISTORY REGARDING THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT
JUSTICE GINSBURGH
IMPACTS ON MINORITIES AND IMMIGRANTS, UNDERPRIVLIGED AND MIDDLE CLASSES DISADVANTAGES BECAUSE OF THIS ACT NOT GETTING REVOTED , ETC…

There are certain basic elements which all academic proposals are expected to contain:
(a) a brief introduction;
(b) a statement of the problem or purpose;
(c) a brief review of the literature;
(d) a theoretical or conceptual framework for the study;
(e) a thesis/dissertation question, research question, or hypothesis; and
(f) a statement of the methodology to be used.

Several other elements which may appear in a proposal, but which are optional and will depend on need, style, and scope of the study, are statements concerning the “Limitations of the Study,” “Definition of Terms,” “Background and/or Historical Information.”
The length of the six areas listed above and the manner in which they are ordered will depend on the topic chosen and the manual that is being used.

The Abstract
An abstract, which is a summary or synopsis of a longer work, is defined in terms of the purpose that it serves. In the process of acquiring their degrees, candidates may write many abstracts; however, two abstracts are required by the Graduate School, depending on the degree being pursued:
At the Master’s level, an abstract must be submitted with the appropriate forms as part of the request for a final oral examination.

At the Ph.D. level, an abstract must be submitted with the appropriate forms as part of the request for a final oral examination.

The abstract is to be included as a part of each final thesis or dissertation.

Although requirements and space dictate the length of an abstract, each academic abstract should contain the following:
(a) the problem being studied and its resulting thesis/dissertation, research question, or hypothesis;
(b) the methodology and statistics, where appropriate;
(c) the results or findings; and
(d) the conclusions, discussion, implications, and recommendations, if any.

Consistent with publishing specifications, the maximum number of words in an abstract should be 150 words for a thesis and 350 words for a dissertation.

Table of Contents
The Table of Contents is the only index of your thesis/dissertation. It reveals the nature and course of your research and the method you have chosen to present the results of your work. For theses/dissertations submitted to the Graduate School, the chapter is the basic unit of division, with subdivisions where appropriate. Use either the heading scheme or the decimal system to organize the chapter sections. (See Examples #3 and #4 in the Appendix.) The organization scheme of your work must match the scheme displayed in the text. The system of indenting you use in the Table of Contents to indicate subdivisions within chapters must match the subdivision system in the chapters. The title of each entry must correspond exactly to the title listed in the text. Use dot leaders (. . .) to connect the last word of each entry to the page numbers. All preliminary pages are listed in the Table of Contents. (If you have included the copyright page in your thesis/dissertation, it is not listed.)
The use of dot leaders (the dots on each line of the Table of Contents connecting the headings of the page numbers) is required. The dots in the leader must line up appropriately at the end of each line of the Table of Contents. Most word processing software includes a feature for creating a Table of Contents that includes dot leaders.
Most word processing packages can create a Table of Contents with dot leaders, from the headings in a document. For Microsoft Word, you use styles to create the different headings. For example, set heading 1 (for Chapter Titles), heading 2 (for level two headings), heading 3 (for level 3 headings) and heading 4 for (level 4 headings). When you type the heading, select the appropriate heading style based on the level of heading. When you generate the Table of Contents, not only will the headings be exact, the page numbers also will be exact. If you revise the document, regenerate the Table of Contents and the headings and page numbers will be updated. However, this feature works differently depending on which software package you use.
All entries and page numbers must match the text exactly. Please double-check these details for accuracy.

Bibliographies and Reference Lists
All sources cited in the text must be carefully listed in your reference section. This reference section will be titled “References” or “Bibliography” and will be placed at the end of the text. Carefully select an established reference style appropriate for your field of study. This list allows anyone reading your work to view the scope of your research.
A mistake many degree candidates make is that the citations in the text do not match the reference list or bibliography. Even when they include all the citations, sometimes the names are spelled differently, the dates are different, or they do not include all the required bibliographical information. The easiest and most professional way to accomplish this is to use a reference management software package, such as EndNote, Reference Manager, or the like. The alternative is to proof the document with the thesis/dissertation on the left and the reference/bibliography on the right. As you read the document, check the citations against the reference section or the bibliography.
The Appendix
The Appendix will contain additional illustrative material such as forms, questionnaires, documents, long and complex tables, figures, and computer printouts. This material is not essential to the text but helpful to a reader seeking further clarification. The Appendix is not a repository for data that should appear in the text.
When more than one Appendix is used, each must be assigned a letter (Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, etc.) as well as a title. Each appendix with its title must be listed separately in the Table of Contents as a subdivision under the heading APPENDICES.

Formatting the Final Copy

Order of Pages
In the thesis/dissertation, the pages should be ordered as follows:
• Title Page
• • Abstract
• Table of Contents
• List of Tables
• List of Figures
• List of Abbreviations
• List of Symbols
• Main Body
Chapter 1 (which includes an introduction)
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
• Appendices
• Bibliography/References

** GENERAL OUTLINE FOR RESEARCH DESIGN FOR HOWARD UNIVERSITY **

I. RESEACH DESIGN
II. TITLE
1. WHAT ARE THE NEEDS?
2. PURPOSE AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM (SET OUT WHAT YOU’RE TRYING TO DO, WHAT PROBLEM YOUR ATTEMPTING TO SOLVE, OR WHAT PROPOSITIONS YOU SEEK TO PROVE? WHAT NEED WILL THE RESEARCH ATTEMPT TO ADDRESS?
3. DATA NECESSARY TO STUDY THE TOPIC
A. TYPE OF DATA NECESSARY ( WHAT INFORMATION DO YOU NEED?
B. AVAILABILITY OF DATA: LOCATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
C. METHODOLOGY FOR DATA COLLECTION ( HOW WILL YOU COLLECT IT , WHAT PROBLEMS WILL YOU HAVE IN COLLECTING IT, WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF YOUR COLLECTION METHODS?)
D. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH ( HOW DOES THE RESEARCH PROJECT CONTRIBUTE TO THE KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, PRACTICE, OR THE FIELD OF POLITICAL SCIENCE?)
4. METHODS OF ANALYZING THE DATA
A. DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD (DESCIRIPTIVE, COMPARATIVE, STATISTICAL, CASE STUDY, ETC…)
B. UTILITY OF THE METHOD GIVING YOUR DATA AND PURPOSE
C. STATEMENT AS TO WHY YOU CHOSE THIS METHOD INSTEAD OF ALTERNATIVE ONES.
D. INDICATE SOME PREVIOUS STUDIES WHICH HAVE AND ONLY PUBLISHED STUDIES BY OTHER AUTHORS
5. EXPECTED RESULTS (RESULTS SECTION)
A. EXPECTED CONCLUSIONS ( BASED ON WHAT OUVE READ , WHAT DO YOU EXPECT TO FIND?)
B. RELEVANCE OF RESULTS (DISCUSSION SECTION)

**** (IHAVE BEEN EXCLUDED FROM SUBMITING TO OFFICE TO REGUALTORY RESEARCH AND COMLIANCE BECAUSE:

1. THIS PROJECT WILL NOT INVOLVE HUMANS AS RESEARCH SUBJECTS OR HUMAN DATA
2. THIS PROJECT WILL NOT REQUIRE USE OF VERTEBRATE ANIMAL SUBJECTS
3. THIS PROJECT WILL NOT REQUIRE USE OF RECOMBENT DNA OR PLANTS, BIOHAZARDS OR INFECTIOUS MATERIALS.
4. THIS PROJECT WILL NOT REQUIRE USE OF TRANSFER OF BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION OR MATERIALS, NON- IODIZING RADITATION, TRANSMISSION OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION OR MATERIALS
5. THIS PROJECT WILL NOT REQUIRE USE OF TECHNOLOGY, A PRODUCT, MATERIAL OR DATA OWNED OR TO BE PROVIDED BY A THIRD PARTY.

Pagination
All pages in the thesis/dissertation must be counted and numbered. The title page is counted but not numbered. The preliminary pages (Committee Approval Form, Dedication, Acknowledgments, etc.) are numbered with small Roman numerals, (ii, iii, iv, etc.).
The remaining parts of the thesis/dissertation, including text, illustrations, appendix, and bibliography should be numbered with the appropriate Arabic numerals.
All pages of the thesis/dissertation are numbered at the bottom, with the page number centered one-half inch above the bottom edge of the page.
Please number pages carefully. Inserted pages using both numerical and alphabetical numbering (for example, 43a) are not acceptable.
Margins
The top, right, bottom, and left margins must be 1 inch each.
Spacing
Use standard double-spacing for the text pages such as dedication, acknowledgments, the abstract, and the body of the thesis/dissertation.
Single-space items in lists, notes, and lists of tables and figures, but double-space between each entry. (This also applies to the Bibliography section and the Reference section.) Single-space all table headings, all figure captions, and block quotations that are four lines or longer. Indent block quotations one-half inch from both the left and right margins.
Double-space between paragraphs.
Indent paragraphs consistently.
The spacing above and below headings throughout your paper must be consistent.

Word Processing Regulations
Use 12-point type for all text, including footnotes and endnotes, numbers of tables and figures and captions of tables and figures.
A smaller font size may be used within the tables and figures. The font size for the table headings and the figure captions must remain at 12-point.
Different fonts and font sizes may be used within the appendices.
Limit your font selection to Times New Roman or Helvetica. Italic print may be used for foreign words, for emphasis or titles of publications. Please consult your selected style manual for correct usage of italics or underlining.
Center and type in uppercase letters all major section titles on the heading pages, for example, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, ABSTRACT, CHAPTER TITLE, and BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Place footnotes at the bottom of the appropriate page, or place endnotes in numerical order at the end of each chapter.
Do not split references, bibliographic entries, table headings, or figure captions across two pages. (However, footnotes at the bottom of the page may continue to the following page.)
Do not hyphenate the last word in a paragraph or split a word across two pages. No more than two consecutive lines should end with divided words. Divide words as they are in the dictionary.
Do not leave a heading as the last line on a page. Do not submit a page with only one line of text.
A heading near the bottom of a page must have at least two lines of text beneath it. When the first line of a paragraph appears as the last line on a page, it is referred to as an “orphan” line. When the last line of a paragraph appears as the first line on a page, it is referred to as a “widow” line. To avoid orphan or widow lines, use the “orphan and widow” features of the word processing package. If the word processing package does not have this feature, use a page break to keep at least two lines together, which will result in a wider bottom margin on the previous page.

Preparing Illustrations

Tables and Figures
Tables and figures are types of illustrations which supplement rather than duplicate the material in a text. You must acknowledge the source of any table or figure you reproduce or modify from another author or work.
Tables and figures in the text should appear as soon as possible after they are first mentioned. In cases where numerous tables or figures would disrupt the flow of the text, you may group them at the end of the chapter, in the order they were mentioned in the text. If a table or figure is less than half a page, you may integrate it on the page of text. Set it off from the text with at least three spaces above and below. You may also group several small tables or figures on a single page.
Follow these guidelines when preparing tables or figures.
A table is a columnar arrangement of information organized to save space and convey relationships at a glance. While most tables present quantitative data, some tables consist mainly of words that present quantitative comparisons or descriptive information. The format of the table (e.g., title, numbering, and borders) should be determined by the style manual being used. However, in all instances, the table number and title must be above the table. Position table numbers and headings flush left or centered two lines ABOVE the table.
A figure is a graphic illustration, such as a chart, graph, diagram, map, photograph, or plate. Position figure numbers and captions centered two lines BELOW the figure.
Give numbers and headings or captions to all tables and figures that appear in the text. Number the tables and figures consecutively throughout the paper, or use a decimal system to number them by chapter.
The number and heading or caption should follow the same horizontal or vertical direction as the table or figure.
Use the same font type and size for all table numbers and headings and all figure numbers and captions. This font should match that used for the text. You may use different font sizes within the figure or table.
The number, heading or caption, and page number of each table or figure must be identical to the number, heading or caption, and page number used in the List of Tables and List of Figures.
You may continue with the consecutive numbering system for tables and figures in the appendix, or you may use an appendix numbering system. (The first table in the appendix would be Table A.1; the first figure would be Figure A.1, and so on.)
All appendix tables and figures must be listed in the List of Tables or the List of Figures. All tables and figures must fit into the same margin requirements as the text. If you continue a table or a figure onto succeeding pages, both pages are labeled with the word “continued.” Do not repeat the heading or the caption.
Oversized tables or figures can be printed sideways (landscape orientation) on the page. However, do not landscape the page number. Print the page number in its usual (portrait) orientation. Tables or figures landscaped on a page should have their top edge near the left margin of the paper.

DECIMAL SYSTEM HEADINGS AND SUBHEADINGS.
Headings and Subheadings in the Table of Contents
1. TITLE OF FIRST CHAPTER ……………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1. Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………2
1.2. Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………3
1.2.1. Third Level………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
1.2.2. Third Level………………………………………………………………………………………………..5
2. TITLE OF SECOND CHAPTER ………………………………………………………………………………..7
2.1. Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………8
2.2. Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………9
2.2.1. Third Level………………………………………………………………………………………………10
2.2.2. Third Level………………………………………………………………………………………………11
Headings and Subheadings on Text Pages
CHAPTER 1. TITLE OF FIRST CHAPTER
1.1 Second Level Heading Title
1.2 Second Level Heading Title
1.2.1 Third Level Heading Title
Example No. 3 – Decimal System Headings and Subheadings

MULTI-LEVEL SYSTEM FOR HEADINGS AND SUBHEADINGS
Headings and Subheadings in the Table of Contents
1. TITLE OF FIRST CHAPTER ……………………………………………………………………………………1
Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………2
Second Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………………3
Third Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………4
Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………….5
Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………….6
Third Level…………………………………………………………………………………………………7
Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………….8
Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………….9
2. TITLE OF SECOND CHAPTER ………………………………………………………………………………10
Second Level……………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
Second Level……………………………………………………………………………………………………….12
Third Level……………………………………………………………………………………………….13
Third Level……………………………………………………………………………………………….14
Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………..15
Fourth Level…………………………………………………………………………………..16
Headings and Subheadings on Text Pages
CHAPTER 1. TITLE OF FIRST CHAPTER
Second Level Heading Title
Third Level Heading Title
Fourth Level Heading Title
Example No. 4 – Multi-Level Headings and Subheadings

TABLE HEADINGS Decimal System
Table 3.1
Title of Table Gender Age 20-25 Age 25-50 Missing Data Total
Women 5 10 2 17
Men 10 2 5 17
Total 15 12 7 34

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