Click here to have a similar A+ quality paper

Order Now

Ethical Cocerns in Computing For the Final Paper, you will select one topic from the list below. Choose a topic that is important or interesting to you, and write a five- to seven-page paper about it. Instructions for completing the Final Paper: Ethical Concerns in Computing (cover in Chapter1) 1. Please select from one of the following topics, which are addressed in the course textbook, Introduction to Computer Literacy: o Collaborative Technologies (covered in Chapter 1) o Ethical Concerns in Computing (covered in Chapter 1) o The Digital Divide (covered in Chapter 1) o Open Source Software (covered in Chapter 3) o The Impact of Mobile Computing (covered in Chapter 4) o Social Networks (covered in Chapter 7) o Protecting Copyrights and Intellectual Property (covered in Chapter 8) o Plagiarism and Online Education (covered in Chapter 8) o The Future of Cloud Computing (covered in Chapter 9) 2. Return to the textbook and review the pages in the chapter that pertain to your selected topic. 3. Next, log in to the Ashford University Library and conduct a search on that topic. o The INF103. tutorial will walk you through the basic steps of doing a search for scholarly articles within the Ashford University Library. A transcript of this video can be accessed through your online course. 4. Select two scholarly articles to use in your paper. For each article, write down the author information, date of publication, title of the article, the publication information (journal title), and the database from which you retrieved the article. You will need this information when you create your references for the sources. 5. Begin the writing process. You are going to compare the points of view offered by these authors (the author of your textbook and the authors of the two articles you have selected) on your selected topic, and then offer your own point of view based upon your analysis of the readings. o The Ashford Writing Center (AWC) offers assistance with the writing process. The AWC contains many tutorials and offers online guides for how to develop an academic paper. Click on the Writing Center link under “Learning Resources” in the left navigation of this course to visit the AWC. Criteria for Grading You will be graded on how well your paper meets the following criteria: Content 1. How clearly you demonstrate your knowledge of your chosen topic. 2. Frequent and appropriate use of examples from the textbook and selected articles to support your points. 3. Appropriate inclusion of relevant quotes from the discussion forum activities. 4. At least one paragraph for each of your three sources (the textbook and two scholarly articles) that includes an accurate summary of the points made by the author(s). 5. At least one paragraph for each of your three sources showing your thoughtful analysis of the point of view introduced by the authors. 6. At least two paragraphs illustrating how the authors of those three sources agree or disagree with one another about the topic. 7. At least two paragraphs that reflect your own point of view and provide a conclusion about your chosen topic. Form The way your paper looks is also important to this assignment. Be sure that your paper: 1. Complete your assignment using Microsoft Word. 2. Include a proper title page. 3. Use correct APA formatting for an academic paper (see the Ashford Writing Center tutorial). 4. Use proper citation style for all quotes. 5. Your paper must be between five to seven pages long (excluding title and references pages). 6. Make sure to review your paper for grammar and use the Spell Check function in Microsoft Word before submitting your work. Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment This came out my text book Required Text 1. Bowles, M. D. (2013). Introduction to Digital Literacy. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc Ethics Power and ethics have always had a close relationship, and as the old saying goes, "Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely." This means that people have a responsibility to use their power wisely and ethically. The power created by computers is no different from any other type of power, as it also has a profound effect on ethics. The first person to explore this issue was James Moor, who wrote an article in 1985 titled "What Is Computer Ethics?" in which he suggested that computers provided society with new capabilities, and that computer ethics was the study of how to use these powers wisely and fairly both on a micro or personal level and at the macro level of society itself (Stamatellos, 2007). If you need get into the student portal my ID is ERPARH0678 my password is Sound1965 Throughout this book, we will see examples of ethical dimensions of computer use, but a short list of ethical issues related to the emergence of computers in society is provided here. The collection of data about individuals raises concerns about the privacy of that data and the importance of ensuring that only authorized people know certain things about other people’s lives. Another issue is security and the possibility that thieves can steal your identity and use your credit cards and other assets for their ill-gotten gain. A third issue involves the reliability of data. Computer use cannot eliminate the possibility of human error. If a person enters the wrong information about you into a database, this inaccuracy might affect your medical records or credit history. A fourth issue is that of intellectual property. Digital information can easily be copied and reproduced. Because of this, significant ethical issues are involved in ensuring that the creators of a piece of intellectual property receive all the rewards and recognition due to them. The Social Impact of Computing As technologies grow and evolve, they bring changes to society. This is what is meant by the phrase the "social impact of technology." Take a look at the automobile and consider how it has shaped our roads, cities, and suburban living areas. The automobile has even changed courtship patterns and how we meet, mingle, and date. While courtship used to take place on the front porch of a woman’s house, automobiles have made dating a much more private and romantic affair than was possible during the 19th century (Bailey, 1988). But this does not mean that technology alone determines or controls our social existence. Instead, it is a reciprocal relationship. Individuals create new technology, and when people begin to use it, society itself can change. In this section, we will explore some of the more important social impacts of computing today and consider some of the ways in which computers are changing communication, collaboration, ethics, and how they are intricately connected to society. Importantly, it is the evolution of mobile computing that has resulted in the greatest changes to our social lives. No longer are computers bound to the office desktop. The availability of cell phones and tablet computers with powerful processors and Internet access means that many people spend less time "off-line" than online. This means that there is a significant social impact to computing that is essential to understand. While people once used to wake up and read the morning newspaper, today, more and more people are turning on their smartphone or tablet computer to check the latest news, or see what their friends did the night before (or even that morning). Communication Creatas/Thinkstock Digital communications have made working from home the new routine for many employees who no longer require a daily commute to an office. What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of working remotely? Computers enable us to communicate with each other in unprecedented ways. We all know how easy it is to stay in touch with our loved ones with cell phones. But this communication technology also connects us to people throughout the world, ending our isolation in even the most remote areas on earth. Katie Spotz, a daring 22-year-old endurance athlete, decided that she wanted to row a boat across the Atlantic Ocean to bring attention to the problem of a lack of clean drinking water in some parts of the world (to learn more, see http://www.rowforwater.com). While this 90-day journey found Spotz alone in the midst of a great ocean, her solar-powered batteries, satellite technology, and computer let her stay in constant contact with her family and friends on Facebook. Even a person floating in a tiny rowboat in the middle of the ocean is never truly alone if she has the power of computer-aided communication on her side. Connections across vast distances are made possible through a combination of multiple technologies, including high-speed Internet, portable computers, GPS, cell phones, and video technology. Of course, these connections benefit far more people than those engaging in extreme events like rowing across an ocean. For example, computers and communication technology now allow virtual offices to exist anywhere in the world. People who were formerly tied to an office within a building owned by an employer can now work efficiently at home. While not every profession has this luxury (most physicians still need to see patients in person though even they can sometimes remotely diagnose disease through the use of computers), other jobs such as accounting, teaching, programming, or design can easily be performed remotely. In a book called The 60-Second Commute, authors Erica Orloff and Kathy Levinson (2003) argued that computer technology creates a new communications environment in which people can integrate home and work life in entirely new ways. There is no magical reason to start the workday at 8 a.m. anymore or end it at 5 p.m. Computers blend leisure and work time, enabling some professionals to measure their contributions not by time spent on the job site but by the quality and efficiency of the work they perform (Orloff & Levinson, 2003). Computers have created a communications revolution. Collaboration No matter where work is performed, computers create opportunities to collaborate in new and important ways. This collaboration can happen with people who work in the same office building or in various locations throughout the world. Computers, by means of a variety of important software and hardware tools, have created opportunities for people to share data and work together in ways that can significantly improve workplace performance. Some have suggested, "mass collaboration changes everything" (Tapscott, 2008). This might include sharing the creation and editing of a document, bringing people in different continents together in an online video conference, or giving users of software programs the power to change and improve the product themselves (more on this topic will be provided when we discuss open-source programs). The result is a new way to collaborate that would have been impossible without a computer serving as a vehicle for people to instantaneously share, edit, and comment upon ideas. One example of this collaboration is a Web site called Wikipedia (see Wikipedia.org). While it is like a traditional encyclopedia—it has descriptive entries on important topics from A to Z—it also uses the power of collaboration to go beyond what a traditional encyclopedia can provide. Massive numbers of users bring their unique experiences to the site to create and revise the content in ways that take advantage of mass collaboration. Some have described this phenomenon with the slogan, "We are smarter than me." In other words, there is a power in crowds (or groups of people who share common interests) that can be focused and harnessed in fresh ways through computer technology. This new collaborative power can achieve something that would be impossible for individuals or small groups alone to accomplish (Libert & Spector, 2008). The Social Impact of Computing As technologies grow and evolve, they bring changes to society. This is what is meant by the phrase the "social impact of technology." Take a look at the automobile and consider how it has shaped our roads, cities, and suburban living areas. The automobile has even changed courtship patterns and how we meet, mingle, and date. While courtship used to take place on the front porch of a woman’s house, automobiles have made dating a much more private and romantic affair than was possible during the 19th century (Bailey, 1988). But this does not mean that technology alone determines or controls our social existence. Instead, it is a reciprocal relationship. Individuals create new technology, and when people begin to use it, society itself can change. In this section, we will explore some of the more important social impacts of computing today and consider some of the ways in which computers are changing communication, collaboration, ethics, and how they are intricately connected to society. Importantly, it is the evolution of mobile computing that has resulted in the greatest changes to our social lives. No longer are computers bound to the office desktop. The availability of cell phones and tablet computers with powerful processors and Internet access means that many people spend less time "off-line" than online. This means that there is a significant social impact to computing that is essential to understand. While people once used to wake up and read the morning newspaper, today, more and more people are turning on their smartphone or tablet computer to check the latest news, or see what their friends did the night before (or even that morning). Communication Creatas/Thinkstock Digital communications have made working from home the new routine for many employees who no longer require a daily commute to an office. What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of working remotely? Computers enable us to communicate with each other in unprecedented ways. We all know how easy it is to stay in touch with our loved ones with cell phones. But this communication technology also connects us to people throughout the world, ending our isolation in even the most remote areas on earth. Katie Spotz, a daring 22-year-old endurance athlete, decided that she wanted to row a boat across the Atlantic Ocean to bring attention to the problem of a lack of clean drinking water in some parts of the world (to learn more, see http://www.rowforwater.com). While this 90-day journey found Spotz alone in the midst of a great ocean, her solar-powered batteries, satellite technology, and computer let her stay in constant contact with her family and friends on Facebook. Even a person floating in a tiny rowboat in the middle of the ocean is never truly alone if she has the power of computer-aided communication on her side. Connections across vast distances are made possible through a combination of multiple technologies, including high-speed Internet, portable computers, GPS, cell phones, and video technology. Of course, these connections benefit far more people than those engaging in extreme events like rowing across an ocean. For example, computers and communication technology now allow virtual offices to exist anywhere in the world. People who were formerly tied to an office within a building owned by an employer can now work efficiently at home. While not every profession has this luxury (most physicians still need to see patients in person though even they can sometimes remotely diagnose disease through the use of computers), other jobs such as accounting, teaching, programming, or design can easily be performed remotely. In a book called The 60-Second Commute, authors Erica Orloff and Kathy Levinson (2003) argued that computer technology creates a new communications environment in which people can integrate home and work life in entirely new ways. There is no magical reason to start the workday at 8 a.m. anymore or end it at 5 p.m. Computers blend leisure and work time, enabling some professionals to measure their contributions not by time spent on the job site but by the quality and efficiency of the work they perform (Orloff & Levinson, 2003). Computers have created a communications revolution. Collaboration No matter where work is performed, computers create opportunities to collaborate in new and important ways. This collaboration can happen with people who work in the same office building or in various locations throughout the world. Computers, by means of a variety of important software and hardware tools, have created opportunities for people to share data and work together in ways that can significantly improve workplace performance. Some have suggested, "mass collaboration changes everything" (Tapscott, 2008). This might include sharing the creation and editing of a document, bringing people in different continents together in an online video conference, or giving users of software programs the power to change and improve the product themselves (more on this topic will be provided when we discuss open-source programs). The result is a new way to collaborate that would have been impossible without a computer serving as a vehicle for people to instantaneously share, edit, and comment upon ideas. One example of this collaboration is a Web site called Wikipedia (see Wikipedia.org). While it is like a traditional encyclopedia—it has descriptive entries on important topics from A to Z—it also uses the power of collaboration to go beyond what a traditional encyclopedia can provide. Massive numbers of users bring their unique experiences to the site to create and revise the content in ways that take advantage of mass collaboration. Some have described this phenomenon with the slogan, "We are smarter than me." In other words, there is a power in crowds (or groups of people who share common interests) that can be focused and harnessed in fresh ways through computer technology. This new collaborative power can achieve something that would be impossible for individuals or small groups alone to accomplish (Libert & Spector, 2008). iStockphoto/Thinkstock Computer threats, including malware, viruses, and crimes such as identity theft, are on the rise. Have you experienced a computer threat? What do you think could be done to better protect technology users? Computer Threats The story of the computer in society is not always a positive one. Computers (and people who use them maliciously) can threaten and jeopardize individual rights. The first concern is the right to privacy, which means keeping the information you create for yourself accessible only to you. Computers collect a vast amount of information on people all over the world. Data such as books checked out at the library, food purchased at the grocery store, clothing bought online, phone calls made and the duration, medical histories, and tax and educational records are all stored in a computer somewhere on this planet. While there are important laws that prevent access and dissemination of this information beyond the person for whom the data is intended, these securities can be compromised by hackers (people who break unlawfully into computer databases). It should be noted that while the news media often casts all hackers as engaging in malicious activities, originally the term had a positive connotation, which was the ability to find a new way of using technology to solve a problem. More correctly it is the cracker that engages in identity theft, by stealing your login information, name, Social Security number, and so on. Never weaken your own security by sharing your password with others. One of the ways identity theft can occur is through phishing. This is an email sent to a user that appears to be from a bank or other legitimate business asking for an update for passwords and other login information. Take a look at the following Web site, which shows a sample phishing email. When you click on the "reveal clues" button, it will show you how to detect whether it is an email designed for malicious activity to compromise your security: http://www.pnl.gov/cogInformatics/showcase/simulation/phishing/phishing.html. One common example is PayPal, which is an Internet site that works like a bank in which you can keep funds and make online purchases (Schneider, 2008, p. 534). The phishing scam tells users in an email that their account has been compromised and that the only way to protect their money is to log in via a link that is provided in the email and reset their password. In reality, the fraudulent email is from an identity thief (Rosenberg, 1992). The unsuspecting user types in the information and gives the criminal access to private data and banking accounts (Eck, 2000, p. 163). Visit the following link for some examples of actual phishing emails and a discussion of how you can determine if visitors are fake: http://www.credit.com/credit_information/id_theft/Phishing-Pharming-and-Other-Scams.jsp.

Ethical Cocerns in Computing
For the Final Paper, you will select one topic from the list below. Choose a topic that is important or interesting to you, and write a five- to seven-page paper about it.
Instructions for completing the Final Paper: Ethical Concerns in Computing (cover in Chapter1)
1. Please select from one of the following topics, which are addressed in the course textbook, Introduction to Computer Literacy:
o Collaborative Technologies (covered in Chapter 1)
o Ethical Concerns in Computing (covered in Chapter 1)
o The Digital Divide (covered in Chapter 1)
o Open Source Software (covered in Chapter 3)
o The Impact of Mobile Computing (covered in Chapter 4)
o Social Networks (covered in Chapter 7)
o Protecting Copyrights and Intellectual Property (covered in Chapter 8)
o Plagiarism and Online Education (covered in Chapter 8)
o The Future of Cloud Computing (covered in Chapter 9)
2. Return to the textbook and review the pages in the chapter that pertain to your selected topic.
3. Next, log in to the Ashford University Library and conduct a search on that topic.
o The INF103. tutorial will walk you through the basic steps of doing a search for scholarly articles within the Ashford University Library. A transcript of this video can be accessed through your online course.
4. Select two scholarly articles to use in your paper. For each article, write down the author information, date of publication, title of the article, the publication information (journal title), and the database from which you retrieved the article. You will need this information when you create your references for the sources.
5. Begin the writing process. You are going to compare the points of view offered by these authors (the author of your textbook and the authors of the two articles you have selected) on your selected topic, and then offer your own point of view based upon your analysis of the readings.
o The Ashford Writing Center (AWC) offers assistance with the writing process. The AWC contains many tutorials and offers online guides for how to develop an academic paper. Click on the Writing Center link under “Learning Resources” in the left navigation of this course to visit the AWC.
Criteria for Grading
You will be graded on how well your paper meets the following criteria:

Content
1. How clearly you demonstrate your knowledge of your chosen topic.
2. Frequent and appropriate use of examples from the textbook and selected articles to support your points.
3. Appropriate inclusion of relevant quotes from the discussion forum activities.
4. At least one paragraph for each of your three sources (the textbook and two scholarly articles) that includes an accurate summary of the points made by the author(s).
5. At least one paragraph for each of your three sources showing your thoughtful analysis of the point of view introduced by the authors.
6. At least two paragraphs illustrating how the authors of those three sources agree or disagree with one another about the topic.
7. At least two paragraphs that reflect your own point of view and provide a conclusion about your chosen topic.
Form
The way your paper looks is also important to this assignment. Be sure that your paper:
1. Complete your assignment using Microsoft Word.
2. Include a proper title page.
3. Use correct APA formatting for an academic paper (see the Ashford Writing Center tutorial).
4. Use proper citation style for all quotes.
5. Your paper must be between five to seven pages long (excluding title and references pages).
6. Make sure to review your paper for grammar and use the Spell Check function in Microsoft Word before submitting your work.
Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment

This came out my text book Required Text
1. Bowles, M. D. (2013). Introduction to Digital Literacy. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc

Ethics
Power and ethics have always had a close relationship, and as the old saying goes, "Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely." This means that people have a responsibility to use their power wisely and ethically. The power created by computers is no different from any other type of power, as it also has a profound effect on ethics. The first person to explore this issue was James Moor, who wrote an article in 1985 titled "What Is Computer Ethics?" in which he suggested that computers provided society with new capabilities, and that computer ethics was the study of how to use these powers wisely and fairly both on a micro or personal level and at the macro level of society itself (Stamatellos, 2007).
If you need get into the student portal my ID is ERPARH0678 my password is Sound1965
Throughout this book, we will see examples of ethical dimensions of computer use, but a short list of ethical issues related to the emergence of computers in society is provided here. The collection of data about individuals raises concerns about the privacy of that data and the importance of ensuring that only authorized people know certain things about other people’s lives. Another issue is security and the possibility that thieves can steal your identity and use your credit cards and other assets for their ill-gotten gain. A third issue involves the reliability of data. Computer use cannot eliminate the possibility of human error. If a person enters the wrong information about you into a database, this inaccuracy might affect your medical records or credit history. A fourth issue is that of intellectual property. Digital information can easily be copied and reproduced. Because of this, significant ethical issues are involved in ensuring that the creators of a piece of intellectual property receive all the rewards and recognition due to them.
The Social Impact of Computing
As technologies grow and evolve, they bring changes to society. This is what is meant by the phrase the "social impact of technology." Take a look at the automobile and consider how it has shaped our roads, cities, and suburban living areas. The automobile has even changed courtship patterns and how we meet, mingle, and date. While courtship used to take place on the front porch of a woman’s house, automobiles have made dating a much more private and romantic affair than was possible during the 19th century (Bailey, 1988). But this does not mean that technology alone determines or controls our social existence. Instead, it is a reciprocal relationship. Individuals create new technology, and when people begin to use it, society itself can change. In this section, we will explore some of the more important social impacts of computing today and consider some of the ways in which computers are changing communication, collaboration, ethics, and how they are intricately connected to society.
Importantly, it is the evolution of mobile computing that has resulted in the greatest changes to our social lives. No longer are computers bound to the office desktop. The availability of cell phones and tablet computers with powerful processors and Internet access means that many people spend less time "off-line" than online. This means that there is a significant social impact to computing that is essential to understand. While people once used to wake up and read the morning newspaper, today, more and more people are turning on their smartphone or tablet computer to check the latest news, or see what their friends did the night before (or even that morning).
Communication

Creatas/Thinkstock
Digital communications have made working from home the new routine for many employees who no longer require a daily commute to an office. What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of working remotely?
Computers enable us to communicate with each other in unprecedented ways. We all know how easy it is to stay in touch with our loved ones with cell phones. But this communication technology also connects us to people throughout the world, ending our isolation in even the most remote areas on earth. Katie Spotz, a daring 22-year-old endurance athlete, decided that she wanted to row a boat across the Atlantic Ocean to bring attention to the problem of a lack of clean drinking water in some parts of the world (to learn more, see http://www.rowforwater.com). While this 90-day journey found Spotz alone in the midst of a great ocean, her solar-powered batteries, satellite technology, and computer let her stay in constant contact with her family and friends on Facebook. Even a person floating in a tiny rowboat in the middle of the ocean is never truly alone if she has the power of computer-aided communication on her side.
Connections across vast distances are made possible through a combination of multiple technologies, including high-speed Internet, portable computers, GPS, cell phones, and video technology. Of course, these connections benefit far more people than those engaging in extreme events like rowing across an ocean. For example, computers and communication technology now allow virtual offices to exist anywhere in the world. People who were formerly tied to an office within a building owned by an employer can now work efficiently at home. While not every profession has this luxury (most physicians still need to see patients in person though even they can sometimes remotely diagnose disease through the use of computers), other jobs such as accounting, teaching, programming, or design can easily be performed remotely. In a book called The 60-Second Commute, authors Erica Orloff and Kathy Levinson (2003) argued that computer technology creates a new communications environment in which people can integrate home and work life in entirely new ways. There is no magical reason to start the workday at 8 a.m. anymore or end it at 5 p.m. Computers blend leisure and work time, enabling some professionals to measure their contributions not by time spent on the job site but by the quality and efficiency of the work they perform (Orloff & Levinson, 2003). Computers have created a communications revolution.
Collaboration
No matter where work is performed, computers create opportunities to collaborate in new and important ways. This collaboration can happen with people who work in the same office building or in various locations throughout the world. Computers, by means of a variety of important software and hardware tools, have created opportunities for people to share data and work together in ways that can significantly improve workplace performance. Some have suggested, "mass collaboration changes everything" (Tapscott, 2008). This might include sharing the creation and editing of a document, bringing people in different continents together in an online video conference, or giving users of software programs the power to change and improve the product themselves (more on this topic will be provided when we discuss open-source programs). The result is a new way to collaborate that would have been impossible without a computer serving as a vehicle for people to instantaneously share, edit, and comment upon ideas. One example of this collaboration is a Web site called Wikipedia (see Wikipedia.org). While it is like a traditional encyclopedia—it has descriptive entries on important topics from A to Z—it also uses the power of collaboration to go beyond what a traditional encyclopedia can provide. Massive numbers of users bring their unique experiences to the site to create and revise the content in ways that take advantage of mass collaboration. Some have described this phenomenon with the slogan, "We are smarter than me." In other words, there is a power in crowds (or groups of people who share common interests) that can be focused and harnessed in fresh ways through computer technology. This new collaborative power can achieve something that would be impossible for individuals or small groups alone to accomplish (Libert & Spector, 2008).
The Social Impact of Computing
As technologies grow and evolve, they bring changes to society. This is what is meant by the phrase the "social impact of technology." Take a look at the automobile and consider how it has shaped our roads, cities, and suburban living areas. The automobile has even changed courtship patterns and how we meet, mingle, and date. While courtship used to take place on the front porch of a woman’s house, automobiles have made dating a much more private and romantic affair than was possible during the 19th century (Bailey, 1988). But this does not mean that technology alone determines or controls our social existence. Instead, it is a reciprocal relationship. Individuals create new technology, and when people begin to use it, society itself can change. In this section, we will explore some of the more important social impacts of computing today and consider some of the ways in which computers are changing communication, collaboration, ethics, and how they are intricately connected to society.
Importantly, it is the evolution of mobile computing that has resulted in the greatest changes to our social lives. No longer are computers bound to the office desktop. The availability of cell phones and tablet computers with powerful processors and Internet access means that many people spend less time "off-line" than online. This means that there is a significant social impact to computing that is essential to understand. While people once used to wake up and read the morning newspaper, today, more and more people are turning on their smartphone or tablet computer to check the latest news, or see what their friends did the night before (or even that morning).
Communication

Creatas/Thinkstock
Digital communications have made working from home the new routine for many employees who no longer require a daily commute to an office. What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of working remotely?
Computers enable us to communicate with each other in unprecedented ways. We all know how easy it is to stay in touch with our loved ones with cell phones. But this communication technology also connects us to people throughout the world, ending our isolation in even the most remote areas on earth. Katie Spotz, a daring 22-year-old endurance athlete, decided that she wanted to row a boat across the Atlantic Ocean to bring attention to the problem of a lack of clean drinking water in some parts of the world (to learn more, see http://www.rowforwater.com). While this 90-day journey found Spotz alone in the midst of a great ocean, her solar-powered batteries, satellite technology, and computer let her stay in constant contact with her family and friends on Facebook. Even a person floating in a tiny rowboat in the middle of the ocean is never truly alone if she has the power of computer-aided communication on her side.
Connections across vast distances are made possible through a combination of multiple technologies, including high-speed Internet, portable computers, GPS, cell phones, and video technology. Of course, these connections benefit far more people than those engaging in extreme events like rowing across an ocean. For example, computers and communication technology now allow virtual offices to exist anywhere in the world. People who were formerly tied to an office within a building owned by an employer can now work efficiently at home. While not every profession has this luxury (most physicians still need to see patients in person though even they can sometimes remotely diagnose disease through the use of computers), other jobs such as accounting, teaching, programming, or design can easily be performed remotely. In a book called The 60-Second Commute, authors Erica Orloff and Kathy Levinson (2003) argued that computer technology creates a new communications environment in which people can integrate home and work life in entirely new ways. There is no magical reason to start the workday at 8 a.m. anymore or end it at 5 p.m. Computers blend leisure and work time, enabling some professionals to measure their contributions not by time spent on the job site but by the quality and efficiency of the work they perform (Orloff & Levinson, 2003). Computers have created a communications revolution.
Collaboration
No matter where work is performed, computers create opportunities to collaborate in new and important ways. This collaboration can happen with people who work in the same office building or in various locations throughout the world. Computers, by means of a variety of important software and hardware tools, have created opportunities for people to share data and work together in ways that can significantly improve workplace performance. Some have suggested, "mass collaboration changes everything" (Tapscott, 2008). This might include sharing the creation and editing of a document, bringing people in different continents together in an online video conference, or giving users of software programs the power to change and improve the product themselves (more on this topic will be provided when we discuss open-source programs). The result is a new way to collaborate that would have been impossible without a computer serving as a vehicle for people to instantaneously share, edit, and comment upon ideas. One example of this collaboration is a Web site called Wikipedia (see Wikipedia.org). While it is like a traditional encyclopedia—it has descriptive entries on important topics from A to Z—it also uses the power of collaboration to go beyond what a traditional encyclopedia can provide. Massive numbers of users bring their unique experiences to the site to create and revise the content in ways that take advantage of mass collaboration. Some have described this phenomenon with the slogan, "We are smarter than me." In other words, there is a power in crowds (or groups of people who share common interests) that can be focused and harnessed in fresh ways through computer technology. This new collaborative power can achieve something that would be impossible for individuals or small groups alone to accomplish (Libert & Spector, 2008).

iStockphoto/Thinkstock
Computer threats, including malware, viruses, and crimes such as identity theft, are on the rise. Have you experienced a computer threat? What do you think could be done to better protect technology users?
Computer Threats
The story of the computer in society is not always a positive one. Computers (and people who use them maliciously) can threaten and jeopardize individual rights. The first concern is the right to privacy, which means keeping the information you create for yourself accessible only to you. Computers collect a vast amount of information on people all over the world. Data such as books checked out at the library, food purchased at the grocery store, clothing bought online, phone calls made and the duration, medical histories, and tax and educational records are all stored in a computer somewhere on this planet. While there are important laws that prevent access and dissemination of this information beyond the person for whom the data is intended, these securities can be compromised by hackers (people who break unlawfully into computer databases). It should be noted that while the news media often casts all hackers as engaging in malicious activities, originally the term had a positive connotation, which was the ability to find a new way of using technology to solve a problem. More correctly it is the cracker that engages in identity theft, by stealing your login information, name, Social Security number, and so on. Never weaken your own security by sharing your password with others.
One of the ways identity theft can occur is through phishing. This is an email sent to a user that appears to be from a bank or other legitimate business asking for an update for passwords and other login information. Take a look at the following Web site, which shows a sample phishing email. When you click on the "reveal clues" button, it will show you how to detect whether it is an email designed for malicious activity to compromise your security: http://www.pnl.gov/cogInformatics/showcase/simulation/phishing/phishing.html.
One common example is PayPal, which is an Internet site that works like a bank in which you can keep funds and make online purchases (Schneider, 2008, p. 534). The phishing scam tells users in an email that their account has been compromised and that the only way to protect their money is to log in via a link that is provided in the email and reset their password. In reality, the fraudulent email is from an identity thief (Rosenberg, 1992). The unsuspecting user types in the information and gives the criminal access to private data and banking accounts (Eck, 2000, p. 163). Visit the following link for some examples of actual phishing emails and a discussion of how you can determine if visitors are fake: http://www.credit.com/credit_information/id_theft/Phishing-Pharming-and-Other-Scams.jsp.

Click here to have a similar A+ quality paper

Order Now