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discuss how poor governance and corruption has contributed to this situation, the overall impact of malnutrition among the children, and the most appropriate methods for reducing and eventually eliminating malnutrition in children. I. Introduction A. The food crisis in South Sudan B. Poverty and war are contributing factors C. Thesis II. Poor governance and corruption has contributed to this situation A. Political causes of malnutrition among children in South Sudan. 1. The conflict and civil war that originated from people from their homes. B. Economic causes of malnutrition among children in South Sudan. 1. Reliance on farming as a source of income C. Mortality rates associated with malnutrition among children in South Sudan III. The overall impact of malnutrition among the children A. Environmental causes of malnutrition among children in South Sudan 1. Natural disaster such as flood has affected food harvests. B. Effects of malnutrition among children in South Sudan. 1. Susceptibility to infection. C. Child recruitment into the labor force IV. The most appropriate methods for reducing and eventually eliminating malnutrition in children. A. Possible interventions on malnutrition among children in South Sudan 1. Save the children (Canada) B. Initiatives to spearhead the fight against malnutrition among children in South Sudan 1. Humanitarian action for children (UNICEF) C. South Sudan disaster relief fund (World Vision) V. Conclusion Annotated Bibliography Doocy Shannon, Hannah Tappis, Amy Paul, Rolf Klemm, and Sonya Funna. “Preventing Malnutrition in Children under Two (PM2A): A Case Study in the Food Insecure Context of South Sudan.” World Health & Population 14.4 (2013): 12-22. Print.The authors provide clear analysis of malnutrition in children and the subsequent health risks faced by such children. It is realized that one out of seven South Sudanese children die due to preventable diseases associated with hunger and malnutrition. South Sudan malnutrition is seen to exceed the World Health Organization emergency threshold three times. In addition, the authors delve into the various programs carried out by organizations and foreign governments in an attempt to mitigate the challenge. Fotso, Jean-Christophe. “Urban–rural differentials in child malnutrition: Trends and socioeconomic correlates in sub-Saharan Africa.” Health & Place 13.1 (2007): 205-223. Print.Fotso provides a clear diagnosis of child malnutrition in South Sudan and compares the situation between rural and urban areas. The author determines the effect of socioeconomic factors in fueling this change and the overall situation in South Sudan in comparison to rest of sub-Saharan Africa. It is seen that while child malnutrition is a problem across South Sudan, it is more prevalent among rural children. Factors contributing to malnutrition such as war and drought are also addressed in great detail with a special focus on specific cases in the history of the country. Grandesso, F.. “Mortality and Malnutrition Among Populations Living in South Darfur, Sudan: Results of 3 Surveys, September 2004.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 293.12 (2005): 1490-1494. Print.Grandesso provides a case study of the Darfur region and the challenges faced by children due to the volatile history of the region. He high mortality rates among children is brought into focus with a view of finding the cause factors. In this regard, it is seen that malnutrition has been one of the greatest repercussions of the Darfur crisis. In addition, the author laments at the lack of action from various parties despite the grave situation realized in Darfur in the past. Harvey , Phillip , and Beth Rogers. “Nutrition Status and its Determinants in Southern Sudan: A Summar y of Available Data .” v. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 1924. August 2007. The authors provide an analysis of the overall nutrition status in South Sudan and the factors contributing to poor nutrition in the country. From the outset, it is seen that children are the most vulnerable as they cannot access the basic nutrients to facilitate their growth. The incessant conflicts have led to the scarcity of food. It is seen that most children cannot feed on basic protein foods like beans, meat and milk and this consequently leads to malnutrition. The authors assess the high cases of malnutrition among preschool children which often peaks at 22%. More importantly, it is noted that this prevalence has been on the rise since 2005 despite much of the effort directed toward mitigation. Lefkow, Leslie. Darfur in flames: atrocities in western Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2004. Print.Lefkow discusses the effects of war and atrocities in south western Sudan with a focus on malnutrition. In the analysis, malnutrition comes out as one of the most prevalent effects of the volatile situstion. Access to food is greatly limited by the volatile environment which makes most roads impassable. As a result most aid organization cannot access the affected people. Many young children have therefore died in the region due to malnutrition and preventable diseases. Payams, Nyandit .” Malnutrition in Akobo County.” South Sudan Medical Journal 9.3 (2010): 14. Print.Payams provides case study of one of the most affected areas in South Sudan and how this region has experienced food shortages as a result of the conflict situations. Akobo County is presented as a region where access to food for most children in often a luxury. Malnutrition has taken root to the extent that most children are too weak to go to school while others die before school going age. The author traces the history of the country and how it has been affected much by wars and famines in the past. SOUTH SUDAN – SUDAN: Struggling To Survive.” Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series 49.4 (2012): 19507A-19509C. Print.In this bulletin, the authors paint the picture of a nation recovering from a turbulent history while still facing some great challenges. It is seen that most people in the new state cannot access food and therefore depend on food donations. Children are the most affected and often suffer from malnutrition. Thurow, Roger, and Scott Kilman. Enough: why the world’s poorest starve in an age of plenty. New York: Public Affairs, 2009. Print.In their book, Thurow and Scott provide the contrasts that exist in a country rich in mineral resources and oil while its people suffer from preventable diseases and malnutrition. In an attempt to bring out the clear picture, the authors delve into the South Sudan hunger situation and focus on how children are facing malnutrition at a time when the country should be enjoying its vast resources. It is seen that many people including children starve to death in south Sudan. “We can run away from bombs, but not from hunger” Sudan’s refugees in South Sudan. London, England: Amnesty International, 2012. Print. Amnesty International traces the refugee situation in relation to the food crisis in south Sudan. There is a special emphasis on child malnutrition. Here, it is seen that many children bear much of the suffering as a result to the highly volatile situation which has existed in the country for long. Quote Sheet 1. “4.1 million People, mostly children, face starvation this year. Increased conflict in the region will further worsen the food situation” (Amnesty International 56) 2. Only “acutely malnourished children can receive medication, the rest have to watch and wait”. The health facility can only accommodate ten children. (Doocy et al. 15) 3. “The dependence on rain-fed agriculture has meant that only traditional food crops can be produced. Large scale food production is almost impossible.” (Fotso 220) 4. Even for those with money, “it is normally difficult to find food in the local market”. Most people therefore depend on food donations which are never enough. (Grandesso 293) 5. All the children look “ill and malnourished”, relief organizations are forced to set up outpatient sites in order to care for the increasing numbers. (Harvey par 5) 6. Most common childhood illnesses including diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia are largely associated with cases of malnutrition. “The emergency nutrition program” therefore seeks to reduce mortality among children” (South Sudan 67) 7. “The young government has a primary duty of implementing nutrition programs in the rural communities”(Thurow and Scott 16) 8. Save the Children has been using its “Integrated Management of Acute Malnutrition Approach” in addressing this challenge in many rural communities in the south. (Payams 14) 9. While the leadership of the country is committed to “scaling up nutrition programs” many children still suffer from acute malnutrition in the country. (Lefkow 89)

discuss how poor governance and corruption has contributed to this situation, the overall impact of malnutrition among the children, and the most appropriate methods for reducing and eventually eliminating malnutrition in children.
I. Introduction
A. The food crisis in South Sudan
B. Poverty and war are contributing factors
C. Thesis

II. Poor governance and corruption has contributed to this situation
A. Political causes of malnutrition among children in South Sudan.
1. The conflict and civil war that originated from people from their homes.
B. Economic causes of malnutrition among children in South Sudan.
1. Reliance on farming as a source of income
C. Mortality rates associated with malnutrition among children in South Sudan

III. The overall impact of malnutrition among the children
A. Environmental causes of malnutrition among children in South Sudan
1. Natural disaster such as flood has affected food harvests.
B. Effects of malnutrition among children in South Sudan.
1. Susceptibility to infection.
C. Child recruitment into the labor force

IV. The most appropriate methods for reducing and eventually eliminating malnutrition in children.
A. Possible interventions on malnutrition among children in South Sudan
1. Save the children (Canada)
B. Initiatives to spearhead the fight against malnutrition among children in South Sudan
1. Humanitarian action for children (UNICEF)
C. South Sudan disaster relief fund (World Vision)

V. Conclusion

Annotated Bibliography

Doocy Shannon, Hannah Tappis, Amy Paul, Rolf Klemm, and Sonya Funna. “Preventing Malnutrition in Children under Two (PM2A): A Case Study in the Food Insecure Context of South Sudan.” World Health & Population 14.4 (2013): 12-22. Print.The authors provide clear analysis of malnutrition in children and the subsequent health risks faced by such children. It is realized that one out of seven South Sudanese children die due to preventable diseases associated with hunger and malnutrition. South Sudan malnutrition is seen to exceed the World Health Organization emergency threshold three times. In addition, the authors delve into the various programs carried out by organizations and foreign governments in an attempt to mitigate the challenge.
Fotso, Jean-Christophe. “Urban–rural differentials in child malnutrition: Trends and socioeconomic correlates in sub-Saharan Africa.” Health & Place 13.1 (2007): 205-223. Print.Fotso provides a clear diagnosis of child malnutrition in South Sudan and compares the situation between rural and urban areas. The author determines the effect of socioeconomic factors in fueling this change and the overall situation in South Sudan in comparison to rest of sub-Saharan Africa. It is seen that while child malnutrition is a problem across South Sudan, it is more prevalent among rural children. Factors contributing to malnutrition such as war and drought are also addressed in great detail with a special focus on specific cases in the history of the country.
Grandesso, F.. “Mortality and Malnutrition Among Populations Living in South Darfur, Sudan: Results of 3 Surveys, September 2004.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 293.12 (2005): 1490-1494. Print.Grandesso provides a case study of the Darfur region and the challenges faced by children due to the volatile history of the region. He high mortality rates among children is brought into focus with a view of finding the cause factors. In this regard, it is seen that malnutrition has been one of the greatest repercussions of the Darfur crisis. In addition, the author laments at the lack of action from various parties despite the grave situation realized in Darfur in the past.
Harvey , Phillip , and Beth Rogers. “Nutrition Status and its Determinants in Southern Sudan: A Summar y of Available Data .” v. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 1924. August 2007.
The authors provide an analysis of the overall nutrition status in South Sudan and the factors contributing to poor nutrition in the country. From the outset, it is seen that children are the most vulnerable as they cannot access the basic nutrients to facilitate their growth. The incessant conflicts have led to the scarcity of food. It is seen that most children cannot feed on basic protein foods like beans, meat and milk and this consequently leads to malnutrition. The authors assess the high cases of malnutrition among preschool children which often peaks at 22%. More importantly, it is noted that this prevalence has been on the rise since 2005 despite much of the effort directed toward mitigation.
Lefkow, Leslie. Darfur in flames: atrocities in western Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2004. Print.Lefkow discusses the effects of war and atrocities in south western Sudan with a focus on malnutrition. In the analysis, malnutrition comes out as one of the most prevalent effects of the volatile situstion. Access to food is greatly limited by the volatile environment which makes most roads impassable. As a result most aid organization cannot access the affected people. Many young children have therefore died in the region due to malnutrition and preventable diseases.
Payams, Nyandit .” Malnutrition in Akobo County.” South Sudan Medical Journal 9.3 (2010): 14. Print.Payams provides case study of one of the most affected areas in South Sudan and how this region has experienced food shortages as a result of the conflict situations. Akobo County is presented as a region where access to food for most children in often a luxury. Malnutrition has taken root to the extent that most children are too weak to go to school while others die before school going age. The author traces the history of the country and how it has been affected much by wars and famines in the past.
SOUTH SUDAN – SUDAN: Struggling To Survive.” Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series 49.4 (2012): 19507A-19509C. Print.In this bulletin, the authors paint the picture of a nation recovering from a turbulent history while still facing some great challenges. It is seen that most people in the new state cannot access food and therefore depend on food donations. Children are the most affected and often suffer from malnutrition.
Thurow, Roger, and Scott Kilman. Enough: why the world’s poorest starve in an age of plenty. New York: Public Affairs, 2009. Print.In their book, Thurow and Scott provide the contrasts that exist in a country rich in mineral resources and oil while its people suffer from preventable diseases and malnutrition. In an attempt to bring out the clear picture, the authors delve into the South Sudan hunger situation and focus on how children are facing malnutrition at a time when the country should be enjoying its vast resources. It is seen that many people including children starve to death in south Sudan.
“We can run away from bombs, but not from hunger” Sudan’s refugees in South Sudan. London, England: Amnesty International, 2012. Print. Amnesty International traces the refugee situation in relation to the food crisis in south Sudan. There is a special emphasis on child malnutrition. Here, it is seen that many children bear much of the suffering as a result to the highly volatile situation which has existed in the country for long.

Quote Sheet
1. “4.1 million People, mostly children, face starvation this year. Increased conflict in the region will further worsen the food situation” (Amnesty International 56)

2. Only “acutely malnourished children can receive medication, the rest have to watch and wait”. The health facility can only accommodate ten children. (Doocy et al. 15)

3. “The dependence on rain-fed agriculture has meant that only traditional food crops can be produced. Large scale food production is almost impossible.” (Fotso 220)

4. Even for those with money, “it is normally difficult to find food in the local market”. Most people therefore depend on food donations which are never enough. (Grandesso 293)

5. All the children look “ill and malnourished”, relief organizations are forced to set up outpatient sites in order to care for the increasing numbers. (Harvey par 5)

6. Most common childhood illnesses including diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia are largely associated with cases of malnutrition. “The emergency nutrition program” therefore seeks to reduce mortality among children” (South Sudan 67)

7. “The young government has a primary duty of implementing nutrition programs in the rural communities”(Thurow and Scott 16)
8. Save the Children has been using its “Integrated Management of Acute Malnutrition Approach” in addressing this challenge in many rural communities in the south. (Payams 14)
9. While the leadership of the country is committed to “scaling up nutrition programs” many children still suffer from acute malnutrition in the country. (Lefkow 89)

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