CRITICAL THINKING IN PHILOSOPHY
SECTION 2—METAPHYSICS Marks Code Candidates must answer EITHER all parts of Question 2 OR all parts of Question 3. EITHER 2. God (a) (b) (c) OR 3. Free will (a) (b) What do philosophers mean when they say that freedom and determinism are “compatible”? Do you find compatibilism convincing? Give two reasons for your answer. 6 4 (10) KU AE How does the design argument attempt to prove the existence of God? How has the design argument been criticised? Explain whether or not you find these criticisms convincing. 2 4 4 (10) KU KU AE
SECTION 3—EPISTEMOLOGY Candidates must answer Question 4 and EITHER all parts of Question 5 OR all parts of Question 6. 4. Epistemology (a) State the tri-partite theory of knowledge. (b) Why have sceptics said that it is not possible to acquire knowledge? EITHER 5. Descartes Read the statement below then answer all parts of the question (a-c) To be sure, it is not astonishing that in creating me, God should have endowed me with this idea, so that it would be like the mark of the craftsman impressed upon his work, although this mark need not be something distinct from the work itself. Descartes—Meditations on First Philosophy (a) Describe Descartes’ argument for the existence of God. (b) Why does Descartes need to prove the existence of God? (c) Provide two criticisms of the trademark argument. OR 6. Hume “The idea of God, as meaning an infinitely intelligent, wise, and good Being, arises from reflecting on the operations of our own mind.” (a) What does Hume mean by “simple” and “complex” ideas? (b) Explain how Hume believes we acquire the idea of God. (c) How convincing is Hume’s explanation of how we come to have our ideas?
2 3 (5)
7 4 4 (15)
KU AE AE
4 3 8 (15)
KU KU AE
SECTION 4 —MORAL PHILOSOPHY Candidates must answer all parts of this question. 7. Normative Ethics You promise your brother that you will help him on Monday evening with some very difficult homework. However, a concert ticket becomes available for that same evening. You very much want to go to the concert and your friends are begging you to join them. (a) (b) Explain the main features of Act and Rule Utilitarianism and say how the Act and Rule Utilitarian would respond to this situation. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of Act and Rule Utilitarianism.