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Assignment title: Reflection on Practice Paper Assignment overview: Students are requested to analyse critically a work- related situation or theme to a negotiated brief using appropriate methods; report on learning achieved through the paper, in an appropriate reporting style; make recommendations and/or guidelines for change where necessary, based on project findings: reflect critically on experience and/or practice; research and evaluate relevant information independently. Overall aim: Knowledge gained from internship will be used to identify problems, critically review situations and make recommendations. Current academic and trade literature will be found and used accordingly to add and justify arguments, find solutions and add overall validity to comments made. Organisation & methodology: Problem Statement A problem statement is: Concise. The essence of your problem needs to be condensed down to a single sentence. A reader of your assignment should be able to point to the problem statement and say “AHA! Now I understand the problem addressed by this inquiry.” Specific. The problem statement focuses your thinking, research, and solutions toward a single population or issue. Measurable. Think of the PS as a description of the discrepancy between what is and what should be. The goal of the inquiry is to lessen this discrepancy by the careful research and implementation of effective solutions. The only way to know if this has been accomplished is to measure the results and compare them with the initial discrepancy. Format for Question-Based Research Paper (Template appears at the end of the Project Outline) 1. Introduction and Problem Statement [600 words] 2. Literature Review [1500] 3. Research Question 4. Research Design [together with Research Question section should make 400 words] 5. Participant Observer Journal Data and Analysis [do not do it] 6. Conclusion and Recommendations [1000] 7. References [10 references, only cited references from in-text material using APA referencing style, preferably recently published] 8. Appendix According to the order, you should produce a work of 3’500 words. Please see pg.2-5 for continuation Work place: Student café in a university. The café is run by four employees (all employees are students of that university, undergoing an internship in this café).The author of this paper is one of the employees. Employees are of relatively same age (20-22) and same gender (female). The employees come from different countries and different backgrounds. The employees report to one manager. Each week, one employee is assigned one position: position at bar/cashier, position at pizza station, position at sandwich station, position in the kitchen (stewarding and etc.) The positions are rotated between employees each week. The four employees have equal duties and equal responsibilities. All employees are expected to perform equally well in all of the operations and of the café. There is no supervisory position in the team. All four employees have equal positions within the team. Example: Problem Identified on Internship: The poor image of the security department, involving trust, knowledge and capabilities of its staff. Management Competency: Leadership: Employee Centred: Developing employee relations Question-Based Research Paper: How do support departments add value to organisational operations? In this work: Problem Identified on Internship: Frequently occurring poor performance of the employees, involving enthusiasm, initiative, professional appearance, time-management, employee satisfaction and competence. Management Competency: Leadership: use several competencies(see in appendix) Question-Based Research Paper: What is the importance of having an assigned leader in a team? (Rough)* * (!) Please revise the research question after conducting a literature review, and then refer to me for my approval before proceeding to work Please find an example of a work of the same kind (in the second attachment titled Reflection on Practice Example). Please note (!) that it is only an example to give you an idea of what this paper is about and how it should look like. Please follow the guidelines below on pg. 3 – Most Importantly (!) Guidelines: 1. Introduction and problem statement -Introduce the topic under review and assignment question -Identify the sections that follow – Include ‘in text’ sources* 2. Literature Review -Provide theoretical basis underpinning the research question (in regards to the aspects from appendix) -Summarize key point and synthesize the literature 3. Research Design – Qualitative method (such as interviews, questionnaires, etc.) – One kind of research that you need to produce is the interview with 4 employees (one of whom is the observer, i.e. the author of this paper) and the manager. You may make different interview questions for employees and the manager. Each interview must be held separately (one to one). – Include the interview format in the appendix (the questions asked in the interviews) – You may use one more kind of study (but must be qualitative) – Precisely describe the method and how and why it is used – Method has to justify research methodologies and sources used – Discuss limitations, validity and reliability of the method used 4. Participant Observer Journal Data and Analysis -Presentation of results of observations and data collection – DO NOT DO THIS PART (!!!) 5. Conclusion and Recommendations -Critically analyze results based on the body of knowledge presented in the literature review -Restate the problem and provide a summary of findings as it relates to the literature. – Identify appropriate recommendations for change Results of the interviews: It should be found that if there would be a leader (a supervisor) within the team, it would improve performance of the employees in regards to the problem areas(problem areas include lack of enthusiasm and initiative, professional appearance, time-management, employee satisfaction and competence). The idea is that, for example, if every week there is a different employee who is responsible, he would feel responsibility for the quality standards and would do his best to act as a role model, motivate other employees and so on. At the same time, it may not be the only solution, and thus provide recommendations on what are the other ways to improve employee motivation, quality of job performed, initiative etc. This may be, for example, feedback sessions, one to one sessions with manager, any kind of things that work towards improving the work of employees and work environment (what is studied by HR specialists usually) Refer to literature review Appendix *You may consider the following aspects in the research paper (you are also welcome to consider any other relevant aspects): Leadership Employee Centred Individual employee performance Disciplining employees Developing subordinates Training employees Motivating employees Developing employee relations Directing employees Influencing employees Mentoring and coaching Employee grievances Employee problems Monitoring employees Employee problems Involving employees Empowering employees Customer Centred Customer problems Customer satisfaction Problems with sensitivity Positive customer relations Solving problems Strategic Identifying strategic opportunities Crisis Management Operating calmly and effectively Organisation Identifying organisational problems Build work teams Conducting Interviews Role Modelling Enthusiasm Competence Commitment Professional appearance Diligence & initiative Ethical Standards and work environ. Relations Identifying who influences Developing working relations with outsiders Direction Driven Setting goals Trust Managing trust and meaning Cultivating a trust climate

Assignment title: Reflection on Practice Paper
Assignment overview:
Students are requested to analyse critically a work- related situation or theme to a negotiated brief using appropriate methods; report on learning achieved through the paper, in an appropriate reporting style; make recommendations and/or guidelines for change where necessary, based on project findings: reflect critically on experience and/or practice; research and evaluate relevant information independently.
Overall aim:
Knowledge gained from internship will be used to identify problems, critically review situations and make recommendations. Current academic and trade literature will be found and used accordingly to add and justify arguments, find solutions and add overall validity to comments made.

Organisation & methodology:
Problem Statement
A problem statement is:
Concise. The essence of your problem needs to be condensed down to a single sentence. A reader of your assignment should be able to point to the problem statement and say “AHA! Now I understand the problem addressed by this inquiry.”
Specific. The problem statement focuses your thinking, research, and solutions toward a single population or issue.
Measurable. Think of the PS as a description of the discrepancy between what is and what should be. The goal of the inquiry is to lessen this discrepancy by the careful research and implementation of effective solutions. The only way to know if this has been accomplished is to measure the results and compare them with the initial discrepancy.

Format for Question-Based Research Paper (Template appears at the end of the Project Outline)
1. Introduction and Problem Statement [600 words]
2. Literature Review [1500]
3. Research Question
4. Research Design [together with Research Question section should make 400 words]
5. Participant Observer Journal Data and Analysis [do not do it]
6. Conclusion and Recommendations [1000]
7. References [10 references, only cited references from in-text material using APA referencing style, preferably recently published]
8. Appendix

According to the order, you should produce a work of 3’500 words.

Please see pg.2-5 for continuation

Work place:
Student café in a university. The café is run by four employees (all employees are students of that university, undergoing an internship in this café).The author of this paper is one of the employees. Employees are of relatively same age (20-22) and same gender (female). The employees come from different countries and different backgrounds. The employees report to one manager.
Each week, one employee is assigned one position: position at bar/cashier, position at pizza station, position at sandwich station, position in the kitchen (stewarding and etc.)
The positions are rotated between employees each week.
The four employees have equal duties and equal responsibilities.
All employees are expected to perform equally well in all of the operations and of the café.
There is no supervisory position in the team. All four employees have equal positions within the team.

Example:
Problem Identified on Internship: The poor image of the security department, involving trust, knowledge and capabilities of its staff.
Management Competency: Leadership: Employee Centred: Developing employee relations
Question-Based Research Paper: How do support departments add value to organisational operations?

In this work:
Problem Identified on Internship: Frequently occurring poor performance of the employees, involving enthusiasm, initiative, professional appearance, time-management, employee satisfaction and competence.
Management Competency: Leadership: use several competencies(see in appendix)
Question-Based Research Paper: What is the importance of having an assigned leader in a team? (Rough)*

* (!) Please revise the research question after conducting a literature review, and then refer to me for my approval before proceeding to work

Please find an example of a work of the same kind (in the second attachment titled Reflection on Practice Example). Please note (!) that it is only an example to give you an idea of what this paper is about and how it should look like.

Please follow the guidelines below on pg. 3 – Most Importantly (!)

Guidelines:
1. Introduction and problem statement -Introduce the topic under review and assignment question
-Identify the sections that follow
– Include ‘in text’ sources*
2. Literature Review -Provide theoretical basis underpinning the research question (in regards to the aspects from appendix)
-Summarize key point and synthesize the literature
3. Research Design – Qualitative method (such as interviews, questionnaires, etc.)
– One kind of research that you need to produce is the interview with 4 employees (one of whom is the observer, i.e. the author of this paper) and the manager. You may make different interview questions for employees and the manager. Each interview must be held separately (one to one).
– Include the interview format in the appendix (the questions asked in the interviews)
– You may use one more kind of study (but must be qualitative)
– Precisely describe the method and how and why it is used
– Method has to justify research methodologies and sources used
– Discuss limitations, validity and reliability of the method used

4. Participant Observer Journal Data and Analysis -Presentation of results of observations and data collection – DO NOT DO THIS PART (!!!)

5. Conclusion and Recommendations -Critically analyze results based on the body of knowledge presented in the literature review
-Restate the problem and provide a summary of findings as it relates to the literature.
– Identify appropriate recommendations for change

Results of the interviews:
It should be found that if there would be a leader (a supervisor) within the team, it would improve performance of the employees in regards to the problem areas(problem areas include lack of enthusiasm and initiative, professional appearance, time-management, employee satisfaction and competence). The idea is that, for example, if every week there is a different employee who is responsible, he would feel responsibility for the quality standards and would do his best to act as a role model, motivate other employees and so on.
At the same time, it may not be the only solution, and thus provide recommendations on what are the other ways to improve employee motivation, quality of job performed, initiative etc. This may be, for example, feedback sessions, one to one sessions with manager, any kind of things that work towards improving the work of employees and work environment (what is studied by HR specialists usually)
Refer to literature review

Appendix

*You may consider the following aspects in the research paper (you are also welcome to consider any other relevant aspects):

Leadership

Employee Centred
Individual employee performance
Disciplining employees
Developing subordinates
Training employees
Motivating employees
Developing employee relations
Directing employees
Influencing employees
Mentoring and coaching
Employee grievances
Employee problems
Monitoring employees
Employee problems
Involving employees
Empowering employees

Customer Centred
Customer problems
Customer satisfaction
Problems with sensitivity
Positive customer relations
Solving problems

Strategic
Identifying strategic opportunities

Crisis Management
Operating calmly and effectively

Organisation
Identifying organisational problems
Build work teams
Conducting Interviews

Role Modelling
Enthusiasm
Competence
Commitment
Professional appearance
Diligence & initiative

Ethical
Standards and work environ.

Relations
Identifying who influences
Developing working relations with outsiders

Direction Driven
Setting goals

Trust
Managing trust and meaning
Cultivating a trust climate

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