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Assignment 1: Article Paraphrasing Guidelines for Article Paraphrasing NB: It is not supposed to be brief. You will have to work on 2 articles. 1. Read through the whole article with concentration. Then construct 3-5 sentences of your own about the whole article. Thus, you will be targeting broad words/sentences and only one central idea of the whole article. These 3-5 sentences will thus stand as the first paragraph of your article work. 2. Then go back to the article, looking at only paragraph one of the article. Then paraphrase the ideas in that one paragraph in your own paraphrased words and sentences. If the paragraph in the article is about 6 sentences, you might be able to paraphrase the main ideas of that particular paragraph in about the same number of your own paraphrased words/sentences (or more if you need to). 3. Do not include verbalizations from the article into your article work without converting it into passive voice. 4. If the article does not contain neat paragraphs, then divide the article into neat sections yourself. The idea is to deal with each and every part of the article. 5. Do not include subheadings in your article work. Embed the subheading as a complete sentence to include in the article work. 6. When you have successfully worked on constructing some paraphrased sentences of your own for each paragraph in the article, you may merge your paraphrased sentences of the first paragraph of the article with the second, making it a fuller paragraph for the article work. 7. The article work will approximately have 3-4 full paragraphs of about the same length as the original article. Assignment 2: Article Reflection Paper You will work on some reflective questions on each article: Write An Article Reflection Paper (at least a page-600-800 words): The introduction must state what you think the article is going to talk about before reading it through, just from the title. Then after reading it, describe what focus the author brings the readers to. Who does the main topic of the article relate to or is significant to? Does it also relate to you? Can you connect it to your own life? Then, in the next paragraph, state how the article adds to what you already know about the topic. In other words, how is what you are reading in this article differs from what you already know? What are the new ideas that add to what you already know? Integrate the new ideas with what you already know… What new evidence has been given in the article, what examples were given in the article? State your point of view. If you could ask the author of the article some questions, what would the questions be and why? If others happen to disagree with you, what would you like to point out to them? As a conclusion, restate the new ideas found in the article. End with what you got from the article or what you have learnt from the article, including your feelings and reactions towards the topic generally. Assignment 3: Article Terminology Pick out 5 complex (pathway related) terminologies from the article. Give each terminology the following treatment: pronunciation transcription, etymology (origin), definition from the normal English Dictionary, and the definition from the Technical (pathway related) Dictionary. Students must write the definition from the technical dictionary in their own handwriting (for the final submission). Please add dictionary references. For example: Terminology Pronunciation Etymology Normal Dictionary Hypochondrium (hī′pə-kŏn′drē-əm) From Latin hypochondrium, from Ancient Greek ὑποχόνδριον (hupochondrion, “the soft part of the body below the cartilage and above the navel”), from ὑπό (hupo, “below”) + χόνδρος (chondros, “cartilage”). The upper lateral region of the abdomen, marked by the lower ribs. Medical Dictionary Picture/Image The upper region of the abdomen on each side of the epigastrium, just below the lowest ribs. References:  Google images: www.google.com/imghp‎  Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictionary: http://www.merriam-webster.com/  Online Etymology Dictionary: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php  The Free Dictionary: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/  Wiktionary: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Main_Page Workload: There are 2 articles and 2 video clips to work on in total. VIDEO WORK TASK PAPER Discourse Analysis & Rhetoric (Pathway Related) Assignment 1: Video Raw Detailed Notes Guidelines for Video Raw Detailed Notes You will have 2 video clips to view. 1. Watch the whole video clip with concentration and without distractions. 2. Take down detailed notes as you watch the video clip. 3. Since it is actually notes, bullets and phrases are acceptable. 4. Your notes do not have to be in complete sentences. 5. Your notes do not have to be in paragraphs or in an essay format. 6. You may play it a second time around if you feel you have missed certain details. 7. Rewrite the video notes in neat legible handwriting for the final submission. Assignment 2: Video Reflection Paper You will work on some reflective questions after viewing each video clip: Write A Video Reflection Paper (at least a page-600-800 words): The introduction must state what you think the video clip is going to talk about before viewing it , just from the title. Then after viewing it, describe what focus the video clip brings the viewers to. Who does the main topic of the video clip relate to or is significant to? Does it also relate to you? Can you connect it to your own life? Then, in the next paragraph, state how the video clip adds to what you already know about the topic. In other words, how is what you are viewing in this video clip differs from what you already know? What are the new ideas that add to what you already know? Integrate the new ideas with what you already know….. What new evidence has been given in the video clip, what examples were given in the video clip? State your point of view. If you could ask the person responsible for the video clip content some questions, what would the questions be and why? If others happen to disagree with you, what would you like to point out to them? As a conclusion, restate the new ideas found in the video clip. End with what you got from the video clip or what you have learnt from the video clip, including your feelings and reactions towards the topic generally. Assignment 3: Video Terminology Pick out 5 complex (pathway related) terminologies from the video clip. Give each terminology the following treatment: pronunciation transcription, etymology (origin), definition from the normal English Dictionary, and the definition from the Technical (pathway related) Dictionary. Please add dictionary references. For example: Terminology Pronunciation Etymology Normal Dictionary Hypochondrium (hī′pə-kŏn′drē-əm) From Latin hypochondrium, from Ancient Greek ὑποχόνδριον (hupochondrion, “the soft part of the body below the cartilage and above the navel”), from ὑπό (hupo, “below”) + χόνδρος (chondros, “cartilage”). The upper lateral region of the abdomen, marked by the lower ribs. Medical Dictionary Picture/Image The upper region of the abdomen on each side of the epigastrium, just below the lowest ribs. References:  Google images: www.google.com/imghp‎  Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictionary: http://www.merriam-webster.com/  Online Etymology Dictionary: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php  The Free Dictionary: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/  Wiktionary: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Main_Page Workload: There are 2 articles and 2 video clips to work on in total. Medical Article 1: New vaccine protects against staph-induced pneumonia Thursday 2 January 2014 Written byCatharine Paddock PhD New research published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases describes how a team in the US has developed a new vaccine that protects against lethal staph-induced pneumonia. Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria causes serious infections in both hospital and community settings, write the researchers. Led by Patrick Schlievert, a professor at the University of Iowa (UI), the researchers describe a new vaccine that targets three toxins made and secreted by the staph bacteria. They show that the anti-toxin vaccine almost completely protected lab animals whose lungs were infected with multiple strains of staph resembling those of human infections, including drug-resistant strains like MRSA. The vaccine protected the animals even when infected with very high doses of bacteria. Not only did it prevent deaths, but 7 days after vaccination, there were no traces of the bacteria in the animals’ lungs. Previous attempts to prevent human infection have used a vaccine that targets cell-surface antigens or proteins. In the current study, the team showed that using this kind of vaccine actually increases the severity of infection. The study follows earlier work where Prof. Schlievert, who is chair of microbiology in UI’s Carver College of Medicine, had shown the staph-secreted toxins were responsible for the serious, sometimes fatal, symptoms that result from staph infections, such as high fever, low blood pressure, and toxic shock. Vaccination may prevent millions of infections every year Prof. Schlievert says: “Our study suggests that vaccination against these toxins may provide protection against all strains of staph. If we can translate this finding into an effective vaccine for people it could potentially prevent millions of cases of serious and milder skin and soft tissue infections yearly.” The researchers also found that using serum from vaccinated animals to protect other animals – something called passive immunization – was also successful, and they suggest this shows that the antibodies induced by the vaccine are the protective factor. Staph is the most significant cause of serious infections and related deaths in the US, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Staph infections range from boils and other skin infections to life-threatening pneumonias and sepsis. Around 70,000 Americans develop staph-induced pneumonia every year, including cases caused by drug-resistant strains like MRSA. Those patients that survive the illness require extensive convalescence. Grants from the National Institutes of Health helped fund the study. Another US study published in 2011 found that the rate of staph pneumonia in children has doubled in the last decade. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/270741.php Medical Article 2: New protein discovery ‘could help treat toxoplasmosis and malaria’ Tuesday 7 January 2014 Written byHonor Whiteman Research led by a team of investigators at the Indiana University School of Medicine has detailed the discovery of a new protein and other proteins it connects with, which they say could lead to the development of new drugs that control toxoplasma gondii – the parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. The researchers say their findings, published in the journal PLOS Pathogens, may also lead to new research avenues for the treatment of malaria. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), toxoplasmosis is believed to be the leading cause of death as a result of foodborne illness in the US. Transmission of the parasite can occur through eating undercooked or contaminated meat from infected livestock, eating meat that was prepared with contaminated utensils, or handling infected meat and not washing hands thoroughly. Cats are also a main cause of the spread of toxoplasma. The parasite is found in their feces, and can be transmitted to humans if they come into contact with it, through cleaning a litter tray for example. Over 60 million Americans are carriers of the toxoplasma parasite, but the CDC note that since the human immune system is usually able to prevent the parasite from causing illness, very few people experience symptoms from it. However, people with compromised immune systems and women who are pregnant are more likely to suffer illness from the parasite. GCN5b ‘crucial for toxoplasma replication’ Through their research, the investigators discovered an enzyme called GCN5b. They found that this protein is crucial for the toxoplasma parasite to duplicate, meaning that if the protein is inhibited, it could be controlled. Further investigation revealed that GCN5b plays a part in the mechanisms responsible for switching genes on or off (gene expression) in the parasite, and that the protein interacts with other enzymes that were found to be more “plant-like” than their human counterparts. In detail, the researchers say that the plant-like transcription factors found in GCN5b – proteins that attach themselves to DNA – cause the GCN5b complex to switch an array of genes on or off. When the team deactivated the GCN5b complex, they found that this stopped toxoplasma replication. Explaining the importance of these findings, Prof. William J. Sullivan Jr, associate professor of pharmacology and toxicology at the Indiana University School of Medicine, says: “GCN5b is a very different protein than its human counterpart, and proteins it interacts with are not found in humans. That’s what makes this exciting – rather than just having one enzyme that we could go after, there could be a whole collection of associated enzyme components that could be potentially targeted for drug therapies to control this parasite.” Dr. Sullivan notes that because the GCN5b protein is active in both undeveloped and severe forms of toxoplasmosis, the enzyme and those it interacts with may be potential drug targets for treatment of the condition. He adds that because the transcription factors found in the protein are plant-like and not found in humans, drug targeting would be significantly less likely to affect human proteins and cause negative outcomes. Furthermore, the investigators say their findings could lead to the development of new drugs that treat malaria, since researchers use toxoplasma as a model organism for plasmodium – the malaria parasite. Dr. Sullivan explains that plasmodium also has a GCN5 enzyme and plant-like proteins. Medical News Today recently reported on a study, also published in PLOS Pathogens, detailing the discovery of clues as to why toxoplasmacan cause blindness in some people but not in others. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/270826.php Medical Video Clips Video Clip 1: Precise surgery to eliminate cancer cells without removing the healthy cells http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tJJ0J7pnp5c Video Clip 2: Flu Shots http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RyH1mo3cXCc

Assignment 1: Article Paraphrasing
Guidelines for Article Paraphrasing
NB: It is not supposed to be brief.
You will have to work on 2 articles.
1. Read through the whole article with concentration. Then construct 3-5 sentences of your own about the whole article. Thus, you will be targeting broad words/sentences and only one central idea of the whole article. These 3-5 sentences will thus stand as the first paragraph of your article work.
2. Then go back to the article, looking at only paragraph one of the article. Then paraphrase the ideas in that one paragraph in your own paraphrased words and sentences. If the paragraph in the article is about 6 sentences, you might be able to paraphrase the main ideas of that particular paragraph in about the same number of your own paraphrased words/sentences (or more if you need to).
3. Do not include verbalizations from the article into your article work without converting it into passive voice.
4. If the article does not contain neat paragraphs, then divide the article into neat sections yourself. The idea is to deal with each and every part of the article.
5. Do not include subheadings in your article work. Embed the subheading as a complete sentence to include in the article work.
6. When you have successfully worked on constructing some paraphrased sentences of your own for each paragraph in the article, you may merge your paraphrased sentences of the first paragraph of the article with the second, making it a fuller paragraph for the article work.
7. The article work will approximately have 3-4 full paragraphs of about the same length as the original article.

Assignment 2: Article Reflection Paper

You will work on some reflective questions on each article:

Write An Article Reflection Paper (at least a page-600-800 words):

The introduction must state what you think the article is going to talk about before reading it through, just from the title. Then after reading it, describe what focus the author brings the readers to. Who does the main topic of the article relate to or is significant to? Does it also relate to you? Can you connect it to your own life?

Then, in the next paragraph, state how the article adds to what you already know about the topic. In other words, how is what you are reading in this article differs from what you already know? What are the new ideas that add to what you already know? Integrate the new ideas with what you already know… What new evidence has been given in the article, what examples were given in the article?
State your point of view. If you could ask the author of the article some questions, what would the questions be and why? If others happen to disagree with you, what would you like to point out to them?

As a conclusion, restate the new ideas found in the article. End with what you got from the article or what you have learnt from the article, including your feelings and reactions towards the topic generally.

Assignment 3: Article Terminology

Pick out 5 complex (pathway related) terminologies from the article. Give each terminology the following treatment: pronunciation transcription, etymology (origin), definition from the normal English Dictionary, and the definition from the Technical (pathway related) Dictionary. Students must write the definition from the technical dictionary in their own handwriting (for the final submission).
Please add dictionary references.

For example:

Terminology Pronunciation Etymology Normal Dictionary
Hypochondrium
(hī′pə-kŏn′drē-əm) From Latin hypochondrium, from Ancient Greek ὑποχόνδριον (hupochondrion, “the soft part of the body below the cartilage and above the navel”), from ὑπό (hupo, “below”) + χόνδρος (chondros, “cartilage”). The upper lateral region of the abdomen, marked by the lower ribs.

Medical Dictionary Picture/Image
The upper region of the abdomen on each side of the epigastrium, just below the lowest ribs.

References:
 Google images: www.google.com/imghp‎
 Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictionary: http://www.merriam-webster.com/
 Online Etymology Dictionary: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php
 The Free Dictionary: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/
 Wiktionary: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Main_Page

Workload: There are 2 articles and 2 video clips to work on in total.

VIDEO WORK TASK PAPER
Discourse Analysis & Rhetoric (Pathway Related)
Assignment 1: Video Raw Detailed Notes
Guidelines for Video Raw Detailed Notes
You will have 2 video clips to view.
1. Watch the whole video clip with concentration and without distractions.
2. Take down detailed notes as you watch the video clip.
3. Since it is actually notes, bullets and phrases are acceptable.
4. Your notes do not have to be in complete sentences.
5. Your notes do not have to be in paragraphs or in an essay format.
6. You may play it a second time around if you feel you have missed certain details.
7. Rewrite the video notes in neat legible handwriting for the final submission.
Assignment 2: Video Reflection Paper

You will work on some reflective questions after viewing each video clip:

Write A Video Reflection Paper (at least a page-600-800 words):

The introduction must state what you think the video clip is going to talk about before viewing it , just from the title. Then after viewing it, describe what focus the video clip brings the viewers to. Who does the main topic of the video clip relate to or is significant to? Does it also relate to you? Can you connect it to your own life?

Then, in the next paragraph, state how the video clip adds to what you already know about the topic. In other words, how is what you are viewing in this video clip differs from what you already know? What are the new ideas that add to what you already know? Integrate the new ideas with what you already know….. What new evidence has been given in the video clip, what examples were given in the video clip? State your point of view. If you could ask the person responsible for the video clip content some questions, what would the questions be and why? If others happen to disagree with you, what would you like to point out to them?

As a conclusion, restate the new ideas found in the video clip. End with what you got from the video clip or what you have learnt from the video clip, including your feelings and reactions towards the topic generally.

Assignment 3: Video Terminology

Pick out 5 complex (pathway related) terminologies from the video clip. Give each terminology the following treatment: pronunciation transcription, etymology (origin), definition from the normal English Dictionary, and the definition from the Technical (pathway related) Dictionary.
Please add dictionary references.

For example:

Terminology Pronunciation Etymology Normal Dictionary
Hypochondrium
(hī′pə-kŏn′drē-əm) From Latin hypochondrium, from Ancient Greek ὑποχόνδριον (hupochondrion, “the soft part of the body below the cartilage and above the navel”), from ὑπό (hupo, “below”) + χόνδρος (chondros, “cartilage”). The upper lateral region of the abdomen, marked by the lower ribs.

Medical Dictionary Picture/Image
The upper region of the abdomen on each side of the epigastrium, just below the lowest ribs.

References:
 Google images: www.google.com/imghp‎
 Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictionary: http://www.merriam-webster.com/
 Online Etymology Dictionary: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php
 The Free Dictionary: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/
 Wiktionary: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Main_Page
Workload: There are 2 articles and 2 video clips to work on in total.

Medical Article 1:
New vaccine protects against staph-induced pneumonia
Thursday 2 January 2014
Written byCatharine Paddock PhD
New research published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases describes how a team in the US has developed a new vaccine that protects against lethal staph-induced pneumonia.
Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria causes serious infections in both hospital and community settings, write the researchers.
Led by Patrick Schlievert, a professor at the University of Iowa (UI), the researchers describe a new vaccine that targets three toxins made and secreted by the staph bacteria.
They show that the anti-toxin vaccine almost completely protected lab animals whose lungs were infected with multiple strains of staph resembling those of human infections, including drug-resistant strains like MRSA.
The vaccine protected the animals even when infected with very high doses of bacteria. Not only did it prevent deaths, but 7 days after vaccination, there were no traces of the bacteria in the animals’ lungs.
Previous attempts to prevent human infection have used a vaccine that targets cell-surface antigens or proteins. In the current study, the team showed that using this kind of vaccine actually increases the severity of infection.
The study follows earlier work where Prof. Schlievert, who is chair of microbiology in UI’s Carver College of Medicine, had shown the staph-secreted toxins were responsible for the serious, sometimes fatal, symptoms that result from staph infections, such as high fever, low blood pressure, and toxic shock.
Vaccination may prevent millions of infections every year
Prof. Schlievert says:
“Our study suggests that vaccination against these toxins may provide protection against all strains of staph. If we can translate this finding into an effective vaccine for people it could potentially prevent millions of cases of serious and milder skin and soft tissue infections yearly.”
The researchers also found that using serum from vaccinated animals to protect other animals – something called passive immunization – was also successful, and they suggest this shows that the antibodies induced by the vaccine are the protective factor.
Staph is the most significant cause of serious infections and related deaths in the US, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Staph infections range from boils and other skin infections to life-threatening pneumonias and sepsis.
Around 70,000 Americans develop staph-induced pneumonia every year, including cases caused by drug-resistant strains like MRSA. Those patients that survive the illness require extensive convalescence.
Grants from the National Institutes of Health helped fund the study.
Another US study published in 2011 found that the rate of staph pneumonia in children has doubled in the last decade.
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/270741.php

Medical Article 2:
New protein discovery ‘could help treat toxoplasmosis and malaria’
Tuesday 7 January 2014
Written byHonor Whiteman
Research led by a team of investigators at the Indiana University School of Medicine has detailed the discovery of a new protein and other proteins it connects with, which they say could lead to the development of new drugs that control toxoplasma gondii – the parasite that causes toxoplasmosis.
The researchers say their findings, published in the journal PLOS Pathogens, may also lead to new research avenues for the treatment of malaria.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), toxoplasmosis is believed to be the leading cause of death as a result of foodborne illness in the US.
Transmission of the parasite can occur through eating undercooked or contaminated meat from infected livestock, eating meat that was prepared with contaminated utensils, or handling infected meat and not washing hands thoroughly.
Cats are also a main cause of the spread of toxoplasma. The parasite is found in their feces, and can be transmitted to humans if they come into contact with it, through cleaning a litter tray for example.
Over 60 million Americans are carriers of the toxoplasma parasite, but the CDC note that since the human immune system is usually able to prevent the parasite from causing illness, very few people experience symptoms from it.
However, people with compromised immune systems and women who are pregnant are more likely to suffer illness from the parasite.
GCN5b ‘crucial for toxoplasma replication’
Through their research, the investigators discovered an enzyme called GCN5b. They found that this protein is crucial for the toxoplasma parasite to duplicate, meaning that if the protein is inhibited, it could be controlled.
Further investigation revealed that GCN5b plays a part in the mechanisms responsible for switching genes on or off (gene expression) in the parasite, and that the protein interacts with other enzymes that were found to be more “plant-like” than their human counterparts.
In detail, the researchers say that the plant-like transcription factors found in GCN5b – proteins that attach themselves to DNA – cause the GCN5b complex to switch an array of genes on or off.
When the team deactivated the GCN5b complex, they found that this stopped toxoplasma replication.
Explaining the importance of these findings, Prof. William J. Sullivan Jr, associate professor of pharmacology and toxicology at the Indiana University School of Medicine, says:
“GCN5b is a very different protein than its human counterpart, and proteins it interacts with are not found in humans.
That’s what makes this exciting – rather than just having one enzyme that we could go after, there could be a whole collection of associated enzyme components that could be potentially targeted for drug therapies to control this parasite.”
Dr. Sullivan notes that because the GCN5b protein is active in both undeveloped and severe forms of toxoplasmosis, the enzyme and those it interacts with may be potential drug targets for treatment of the condition.
He adds that because the transcription factors found in the protein are plant-like and not found in humans, drug targeting would be significantly less likely to affect human proteins and cause negative outcomes.
Furthermore, the investigators say their findings could lead to the development of new drugs that treat malaria, since researchers use toxoplasma as a model organism for plasmodium – the malaria parasite.
Dr. Sullivan explains that plasmodium also has a GCN5 enzyme and plant-like proteins.
Medical News Today recently reported on a study, also published in PLOS Pathogens, detailing the discovery of clues as to why toxoplasmacan cause blindness in some people but not in others.
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/270826.php

Medical Video Clips
Video Clip 1:
Precise surgery to eliminate cancer cells without removing the healthy cells

Video Clip 2:
Flu Shots

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