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Answer the 2 questions, in full more than three sentences. In APA format. Proper and proffesional grammer in very important. With zero, zero error for plagiarism. Most contain some of own life experiences. With this assignment there will be additional opportuny to do additionals assignments on this same bases. Directions and questions listed on attached file

Answer the 2 questions, in full more than three sentences. In APA format. Proper and proffesional grammer in very important.  With zero, zero error for plagiarism. Most contain some of own life experiences. With this assignment there will be additional opportuny to do additionals assignments on this same bases. Directions and questions listed on attached file. My apologies for the short notice. Please Help!!


Block 3 Assignment

Part 1: What did you learn from Meyer as to how he determined the servicescape for his first restaurant? Can you improve his concept?

Part 2: Either in person or online, visit two service establishments of the same type (e.g. hotel, restaurant,etc.), and using the Figure 3.1 (p. 97) Guest Responses to Environmental Influences, compare and contrast how each has designed the setting for the guest experience.

Due date: 02/25, 8:59p

The Servicescape


Temperature, smells, sounds, lights, signs, physical structures, furnishings, green space,open space, other people — although no guest ever singles out or even notices all the ele-ments within the environment, they do combine to create an overall, unified impression of that environment. In the model seen in Figure 3-1, we use the term perceived service envi-ronment for the general perception or whole picture that the guest draws from the count-less individual environmental factors. Bitner calls this overall perception the servicescape ; itis what the individual environmental factors add up to for each guest.Because each guest perceives different environmental elements, each guest ’ s services-cape is a little bit different. Making even more difficult what might have seemed an easy task — providing a setting within which to deliver the service — the hospitality serviceprovider must realize that each guest ’ s reaction to the perceived servicescape is affectedor “ moderated ” by the guest ’ s mood, personality, expectations, and demographic charac-teristics. Even if they perceive the servicescape similarly, a shy seventy-year-old femaleentering a wild-night club by mistake is going to have a reaction different from that of atwenty-four-year-old male accustomed to spending most evenings there. Not only that,but both the seventy-year-old and the twenty-four-year-old may be in different moodsand have different expectations of the night club experience. Service experience designersand hospitality managers must realize that the guest whose perception of the servicescapehas been moderated by that guest ’ s individual differences from all other guests is going torespond to the servicescape in one, or perhaps more likely in some combination, of threeways: physiologically, emotionally, and cognitively. We shall discuss each of these below.

Factors That Moderate Individual Responses

Not only do different guests respond differently to the same environment, but even thesame guest may respond differently from day to day or even hour to hour. Although thehospitality organization usually provides the same servicescape elements for everyone, itshould always remember the uniqueness of guests.We label as moderators the individual, personal factors that cause guests to respond tothe service setting in different ways. Guests bring a particular day ’ s moods, purposes, de-mographic characteristics, and personality traits to a particular day ’ s guest experience.These factors affect or moderate each guest ’ s response to the servicescape.

Some people like to be alone and object to standing in long, crowded lines. Other peo-ple love to be around crowds and view rubbing elbows and sharing harmless gripes withpeople in line as part of the fun. Some customers arrive in a happy mood while othersare angry or upset. Some older people have a hard time walking longer distances whilemost young adults don ’ t mind and may prefer it. Some parents don ’ t like to get wet on aride while most teens think it ’ s great. Some people have been there and done that beforeand have certain expectations of what the environment should be like while others are firsttimers and find everything fascinating.

Cultural values and beliefs also influence how guests respond to the servicescape.Some cultures find red a happy color, and others find it threatening; some find hand-shakes a positive gesture, and others are offended. Some cultures believe in waiting inline and others do not. Each culture produces a multitude of cultural nuances, and hospi-tality managers can only do their best to recognize the individual variations that these dif-ferences create and design an environment that will offer a guest experience of highquality and value to most people.

Moderators also include the individual moods that people bring to the servicescape.When people are upset or angry, they may not be able to perceive any environment as posi-tive or fun. Every restaurant server dreads the arrival of an unhappy diner. Regardless of howgood the service, fine the dinner, or exciting and pleasant the environment, the diner is likely to leave as unhappy (and unlikely to leave a generous tip) as when that person arrived.

People arriving either in a neutral mood or unfamiliar with the experience awaitingthem will be most influenced by environmental cues. The wonderful smell of freshly popped popcorn or baking cinnamon buns will influence the neutral guest to considerpurchasing the food product. Smart retailers make sure these familiar odors are fannedout into the wandering crowd to encourage product awareness and interest. Cinnabondoes its best to ensure that everyone walking by its retail stores smells the tempting aromaof cinnamon. Among other smells it can produce, the Disney Smellitzer machine repro-duces and projects the aroma of freshly baking chocolate-chip cookies to tempt thecrowds walking by the bakery on Main Street, U.S.A., in the Magic Kingdom.

Responding to the Servicescape

A guest can respond to a service setting in one or more of three ways: physiologically,emotionally, and cognitively. The moderating factors discussed in the previous sectionwill affect the nature of the response. Physiological Responses The Senses A physiological response results primarily from the servicescape ’ s effects onthe guest ’ s senses. As seen in Figure 3-1, most physiological responses to the environmentare responses to such ambient conditions as temperature, humidity, air quality, smells,sounds, and light.

Information Processing

A second type of physiological response to the environment isthe information-processing capabilities of the brain. A well-known study of how much un-familiar information a human brain could process at any one time found that the capacity was seven (plus or minus two) random pieces of information, such as random numbers.The study was done for the phone company, which wanted to know how long a telephonenumber people could remember. The study results led to using combinations of wordsand numbers (like REpublic-45914) to help people overcome their physiological limitations by combining a familiar word with five unfamiliar numbers. We can see varia-tions on this method today in the word-based phone numbers used by organizations com-peting for our business with easy-to-remember numbers, such as 1-800-I-FLY-SWA, 1-800-HOLIDAY, 1-800-HILTONS.

The importance of this concept to those managing the service environment is to recognizethat random information will quickly overtax the capacity of the human mind to comprehendthe environment and enjoy the service experience. It doesn ’ t take much unconnected infor-mation — a lengthy menu in an unfamiliar restaurant, for example, or a vast assortment of machines in a self-serve photocopy center — to confuse a customer, and many service experi-ences are unfamiliar territory to their customers. Guests become frustrated when confused,lost, or overwhelmed with too much information or too many options for their minds to com-prehend. Organizations must respect the information-processing limitations that all peopleshare and devise ways to make random information nonrandom and familiar.

Rich and Lean Environments

Environments can be made information rich or informationlean. Obviously, an information-lean environment will help when guests are expected tobe unfamiliar with the setting, or when they have to process a lot of information, whereas an information-rich environment can be used when guests are familiar with the setting orhave few choices or decisions to make. The directional or instructional parts of theenvironment must be kept lean enough to make sure that guests can figure out what they are supposed to do or where they are supposed to go; the richer or more elaborate environ-ments can be used when guests have no responsibility for figuring anything out. Thus, athemed restaurant can be rich in detail and content because the guest only has to sit, observe,and eat. If customers must make decisions about where they are or what to do next, as in amajor convention hotel complex, the setting should be kept relatively simple and familiar.This point ties in well with the cognitive aspects of the environmental experience.

Cognitive Responses

Expectations and the Servicescape

The cognitive impact of an experience depends onthe knowledge the guest brings to the experience. Guests enter every experience with aset of expectations based on what they have seen, heard about, and done before. The hu-man tendency is to seek points of similarity between what we have done, seen, or experi-enced before and what we encounter in the new situation. These prior experiences buildexpectations as to what ought to be seen, which obviously influences what is perceived.For example, whn readng sentences, what we expct to read infuenses what we thnk thewrds say. As an example, just consider that last sentence. Likewise, if we enter a cafeteriasimilar to one we have visited before, we have our behavior scripted to perform the tasksnecessary to eat by the familiar cues in the environment (the arrow pointing to the begin-ning of the line, the arrangement of the trays, the rack for the silverware, and the barsupon which our tray should slide as we review the food items available).

Indeed, one advantage of chain or branded restaurants is that we know what to expectbecause we have been there before. We know that the environment in one McDonald ’ s ispretty much like the environment in another, and so we know immediately how to get ourfood selections after a quick scan of the physical facility to confirm that it is set up thesame as every other McDonald ’ s. Imagine, in contrast, the customer who has never seena McDonald ’ s before and has had no similar experience. Or worse, what if McDonald ’ smanagers were authorized to lay out the restaurants however they wished, as a cafeteria,a typical restaurant, or otherwise? Without any previously scripted behavior patterns torely on, customers new to each location would be quite confused and would require em-ployee time and assistance to navigate through this unfamiliar experience.

The point is that hospitality organizations should recognize the information-processinglimitations of their guests and seek to introduce the environmental cues necessary toensure that the present experience ties into some previously built and familiar guest men-tal map. As noted earlier, theming is used extensively to simplify the ability of guests toorient themselves to a location. If you are in the Magic Kingdom ’ s Frontierland, all thestreets, decorations, cast-member costumes, and even the trash cans are themed to pro-vide the multiple cues that help guests quickly determine where in the park they are. Themore familiar the organization can make the experience to the guest, the less confusion,frustration, and unhappiness the guest will have. Of course, sometimes guests are seekinga unique experience, and so will purposely seek out an unfamiliar restaurant, perhaps tohave an experience unlike ones they have had anywhere else. Nonverbal Cues and Communication

Those aspects of the environmental setting thatevoke a cognitive response can be viewed as a form of nonverbal communication whereby the designers of the guest experience communicate what the experience is and teach theguest how to enjoy it. If patrons see an array of cues such as white linen tablecloth in arestaurant, they link that information back to what they have learned previously aboutthe relationship of white linen to restaurant type and price range. 22 In other words, servi-cescape layout and content tell the guest something about what to expect from the experi-ence. These informational cues tap into previous knowledge and form the expectationsabout what the experience should be like. If diners find that the white-linen-tablecloth res-taurant also has inexpensive menu prices and excellent food, they will be wowed aboutwhat a great deal the experience represents because they have been cued to expect a bigbill. Conversely, if the same diners see disposable china on plastic tables and are thenhanded menus filled with forty-dollar entrees, they will be upset. Guests bring a lifetimeof their own experiences and expectations that influences what they expect to find.Whether or not their expectations are met obviously bears on their satisfaction with theexperience, so physical cues — like all other aspects of the experience — must be carefully constructed and managed to be consistent with the expected experience.

Emotional Responses

Finally, the customer may react emotionally to the servicescape. Old graduates get choked up when they return for reunions at their college campuses. Children and adults alike are emotion-ally touched by holiday decorations. The flags flying, the breeze blowing, the dramatic music, and them a jesty of the distinguished speakers have strong emotional impact on many American visitors to Epcot ’ s American Adventure. Young children have the same emotional reactionwhen Sponge Bob SquarePants walks by. It not only represents an individual physical act butalso builds an emotional tie to the entire park experience that many children never forget.

Emotional responses have two distinct elements of interest to the hospitality organiza-tion. The first is the degree of arousal, and the second is the amount or degree of plea-sure/displeasure that the experience represents. The emotional response that thehospitality organization seeks to create should have elements of arousal and pleasure togain the emotional interest of its guests. People want to spend time and money in pleasur-able environments; they avoid unpleasant environments; those that create high levels of arousal are viewed positively unless the arousal is unpleasurable. A sudden explosion thatcreates loud noise, confusion, and overstimulation would be high on arousal but low onpleasure, except on national holidays like the Fourth of July or during an expected fire-works display. Most people avoid explosive settings.

On the other hand, some people seek out high levels of arousal and pleasure in suchactivities as sky diving, ultra-light plane flying, playing or watching extreme sports, stock car racing, or rock climbing. A trip on a roller coaster is a scary but not terrifying ride,which yields high levels of pleasant experience combined with high levels of arousal. Insuch activities, a little fear stimulates a positive experience for the customer. Arousal canalso be obtained in other ways, such as the appeal to patriotism in Fourth of July celebra-tions or Irish music at a St. Patrick ’ s Day parade.

Good hospitality managers have learned to use arousal cues effectively. For example, inthe morning when guests are flooding into a theme park, they might hear upbeat, up-tempomusic; employees would greet guests in strong, enthusiastic voices to sustain the positive feel-ingsand highlevel of energy with which guests comeinto the park. When guests are leaving atthe end of the day, both the music and the final comments of employees should probably besedate and restrained, to be consonant with the lower arousal level of the tired guests.

The Bottom Line: Come and Stay, or Stay Away

These three response factors — physiological, cognitive, and emotional — operating togetherlead the guests to make one of two choices: to become patrons (i.e., come and stay) or togive their business elsewhere (i.e., stay away) (see far right of Figure 3-1). Leaving the ser-vice and its delivery out of the equation, the guest can decide that the experience of theservice environment was, on the whole, positive or negative. Servicescape perceptionscan encourage the guest to stay longer and come again, or go away and stay away. Hospi-tality organizations must work hard to create environments that encourage the longerstays and repeat visits that result in increased revenues.The model in Figure 3-1 should help hospitality managers to choose and arrange envi-ronmental factors so as to provide servicescapes that enhance the service and its delivery and that guests, in their infinite variety, will generally respond to in a positive way.



1. Envision and create the service setting from the guest ’ s point of view, not your own.

2. Use signs and symbols to make it easy for guests to go where they want to go and toknow where they are, whether in your physical space or on your Web site.

3. Makesurethatthefunctionalpartsofthesettingworkandworkthewaytheguestexpects.

4. Design the space to fit the guest ’ s needs, wants, and expectations.

5. Theming can add quality and value to the setting by making it memorable.

6. Realize that for each guest both other guests and employees are part of the setting.

7. Supply information-rich environments when and where guests have time to appreciateand enjoy them; use information-lean environments when and where guests are tryingto figure out what they should do or where they should go.

8. Do not overload the environment with information; recognize that most people canprocess only small amounts of unfamiliar information at one time.

9. Know and manage the cognitive, physiological, and emotional impact of your envi-ronment on guests.

10. Manage the environment to maintain the guest ’ s feeling of safety and security.

11. Recognize that guests can differ in mood, expectations, and experience from one experi-ence to the next; what was a wow for a guest today may only be an as-expected tomorrow.


As we know, the hospitality manager seeking to provide an excellent and memorable ex-perience should give as much attention to managing the setting as to the service productitself and the service delivery system. The rest of this chapter will be based on Figure 3-1.

This figure is based on a broader model proposed by Bitner for understanding theenvironment – user relationship in service organizations. 15 Our figure here focuses on howenvironmental influences operate on the guest to determine the guest ’ s reaction to the ser-vice setting. The combination of elements can cause the guest (and employees as well) towant to approach the setting and remain in it or to leave the setting and avoid it in the FIGURE 3-1 Guest Responses to Environmental Influences © Cengage Learning 2012


Ambient conditions

Use of space

Functional congruence Environment

Signs, Symbols, andArtifacts

Other people


Perceivedserviceenvironment “Servicescape”


MoodPersonalityExpectationsDemographics IndividualModerators



Cognitive Responses



Come and stay

Stay away Outcomes



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