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1. In the readings by Calderon/Zamora and Ruiz, they address similar issues that Barrera raised in his chapters. Identify 1 issue in each of the readings (for a total of 2) which were also raised in Barrera’s chapters, and elaborate on each of the issues.[ 2. These authors also raised issues not discussed by Barrera. Identify 1 issue in each of the readings (for a total of 2) which were not raised in Barrera’s chapters, and elaborate on each. 3. Both of these articles focus on the labor activism of Mexican/Chicana women during the 1930s. The first article, by Calderon and Zamora, concentrates largely on the stories of two labor activists. Explain who these women were and their accomplishments.

Read chapters from the file “Chicano reader” and answer the questions , the file name is “Questions” and write the page number next to the answer of where you get the answer.  use quotes if you copyed from the text.

Labor Activism in the Early 20th Century

 

 

Reader:

Del Castillo, Between Borders: Essays on Mexicana/Chicana History:

2) Calderon & Zamora, “Manuela Solis Sager and Emma B. Tenayuca: A Tribute”

3) Ruiz, “A Promise Fulfilled: Mexican Cannery Workers in Southern California”

 

 

1. In the readings by Calderon/Zamora and Ruiz, they address similar issues that Barrera raised in his chapters. Identify 1 issue in each of the readings (for a total of 2) which were also raised in Barrera’s chapters, and elaborate on each of the issues.[

 

 

2. These authors also raised issues not discussed by Barrera. Identify 1 issue in each of the readings (for a total of 2) which were not raised in Barrera’s chapters, and elaborate on each.

 

 

3. Both of these articles focus on the labor activism of Mexican/Chicana women during the 1930s. The first article, by Calderon and Zamora, concentrates largely on the stories of two labor activists. Explain who these women were and their accomplishments.

 

 

4. In the chapter written by Ruiz in what industry did the women organize? How did the women organize or mobilize and what did they do to create better working conditions? Lastly, what led to the success of the union and its eventual demise? Know some of the names of the women who helped organize the cannery workers.

 

 

 

 

Weekly Questions and Discussion Points Week 3: Feb. 3 & 5

History of the Southwest, Part I (30)

 

 

Barrera, Race and Class in the Southwest

1) Chapter 1 “Introduction” pp. 1-3 only

2) Chapter 2 “19th Century, Part I” pp. 7-33

Weekly Reading Questions/Discussion Points for Week Three: It is best to read the entire assignment, not merely looking for the answers to the questions. You will discover that you will better understand the readings and the answers by doing so. Write your answers in your own words. If you decide to take a passage directly from the readings, use quotes.

 

Barrera, Chapter 1 “Introduction” (1-3 only)

1. Present the three theories of racial inequality introduced by Barrera in this chapter.

 

  1. Deficiency theory. This is due to the belief that, racial inequality is a result of deficiency within a group of minority individuals based on the variety of biological, cultural and biological varieties.
  2. Bias theory. This theory sees racial inequality as being rooted in the in the biasness developed by the dominant group of individuals.
  3. Structural discrimination theory. This theory locates the root case of racial inequality on the existing structure of the society, which has taken the form of class and colonial dimension. Pg 8.

Barrera, Chapter 2 “The Nineteenth Century, Part I: Conquest and Dispossession”

1. According to Barrera, what were the three key developments influencing the social, political and economic status of Chicanos in the Southwest during the Nineteenth Century?

 

  • The first development, which influenced the social, economic and political status of the Chicano community, was the massive migration. This community migrated into the community, which was organized based on the corporate economic enterprise. This was where the political activity and the economic functions of the Mexican people were based. The migration of the 20th century altered the Chicano social behavior after interaction with the dynamic communities, which were centered on the economic development pg 6.
  • Secondly, the urban emphasis became instrumental in the political, social and economic development of this community. This was because; conflict had shifted from land concerns to the working class concerns. This move developed the Chicano community to embrace the idea of corporate capitalism. Pg. 14,15.
  • The third factor was the complex and heterogeneous settlement patterns. This pattern of settlement led to the emergence of the industrial centers within the community. This led to the improvement of the economic status of the community. Nevertheless, social groups organized themselves within this settlement patterns in order to seek bargaining power, thus building their political strength as well as the relations. Pg 16.

 

2. Barrera presents six explanations for U.S. expansion into the Southwest and for the Mexican American War. How many different explanations did you find in this chapter?

 

  • Rhetoric dominance explanation
  • The explanation of manifested destiny
  • Social Darwinism
  • The need for trade and transportation
  • Presence of multiple sources of economy( mining trading and agriculture)
  • The need for new railroad

 

a. What reasons do each of these 6 explanations offer for U.S. expansion?

 

  • For rhetoric dominance, US wanted to show other communities that, whites were more superior to them.
  • For manifested destiny, the whites wanted to show other races that, all non whites were inferior beings
  • While in the case for social Darwinism, this theory was used only to promote the notion that, where far much superior than the rest of the races and were destined to rule them forever.
  • US wanted to expand the trade along the border, which was termed as lucrative and rewarding.
  • The US-Mexican border was rich in economic resources and US wanted to exploit and establish their industries.pg10

b. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each of these explanations?

 

  • All explanations centered their facts to white superiority over other races
  • The strength of the first explanation is centered on the the fact that, white race was dominant while its weakness is that, it focused on the communities based on race other than work performance.
  • Still the second explanation focused on the same white dominance and superiority as its weakness but its strength was that, the white community wanted a show of mighty over other races.
  • The third explanation had its strength based on the facts of natural selection but failed to outline how it worked.
  • The fourth explanation had its strength based on the fact that, US wanted to expand their economic base across its borders while its weakness is that, the consequences of the expansion of its trade were not highlighted in ytern=ms of labor.
  • The need for minerals for industrial growth in US industries is the strength of the firth explanation but how US would manage to exhaust the same was not explained at length.
  • Lastly , the need for rail transport did not explain how other modes of transport was not necessary in the border.pg.13

3. Compare the various means by which land was transferred in California to how it was transferred in New Mexico and Texas. In other words, in what different ways were Chicanos displaced from the land?

 

  • When land grants to communities was issued by Mexican government and the Spanish, the Chicanos lost their land after the American War, despite the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  • US legal means led to Chicanos losing their lands
  • The third means was use of land seizures
  • Land frauds was another factor which led to Chicanos losing their lands and land rights
  • The final factor was the use of force. Chicanos were ejected forcefully without mercies pg.17.

4. When did Mexico win its independence from Spain?

 

1821

 

Video: Viva la Causa, Part I

1. Identify at least four historical events and occurances in this video which have also been addressed in our readings and/or class discussions. Be as detailed as possible.

 

2. Identify at least four incidents and events in the video which you did not previously know.

 

1/27 Lecture: What is Chicana/o? What is culture?

 

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