1. According to behaviorists, ____ is any relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior that occurs because of experience.
2. Psychologists who believe that learning involves experiences that changes the way organisms mentally represent the environment are
3. Ivan Pavlov is best known for his research in
4. Ivan Pavlov was originally attempting to identify ____.
5. In Pavlov’s original experiments, the bell was at first a ____ stimulus.
6. During Pavlov’s classic experiments, after conditioning, the bell was the ____, and salivation was the ____.
7. You are walking along and suddenly startled by the loud sound of a truck backfiring. Your startle response is the ____, and the sound of the backfire is the ____.
8. While on vacation, twelve years ago, Benjamin became extremely ill when he ate some shrimp. The fact that he cannot eat shrimp to this day is a classic example of
9. Pavlov’s dogs experienced extinction trials, however a few days later, Pavlov sounded the tone and the dogs salivated. This recurrence of the extinguished response is called
10. Your little brother learned that a cow says “moo moo”. When he sees a horse he calls it “moo moo”, this is an example of
11. Your dog barks and growls to the sound of a stranger’s car engine pulling into your driveway, yet wags his tail and gets excited to the sound of your car engine. This is an example of
12. A child who is afraid of the water is tossed into a swimming pool to teach him how to swim is an example of
13. Peter has a phobia for dogs. The behavior therapist has him relax and just think about dogs, and occasionally shows him pictures of dogs. The next session will involve going to the pet store to observe dogs through a glass, and the next week a trip to a kennel. In every instance Peter must maintain a relaxed response. This type of behavior therapy is known as
14. Pavlov is to Skinner as
15. Stimuli that increase the frequency of behavior are referred to as
16. When a behavior is followed by negative reinforcement, the behavior is likely to
17. Punishment is an aversive event that ____ the frequency of the behavior it follows.
18. Professor Fournier gives a quiz every Monday. His students would then tend to ____ because they are on a ____ schedule of reinforcement.
19. A teacher announces that there will be pop quizzes throughout the semester. This is an example of a
20. Bandura’s research suggests that we can learn
21. According to the text, media violence is said to do all of the following EXCEPT
22 A Skinnerian therapist treating a patient with depression would focus on
23. Money is a secondary reinforcer because it
24. Because you set your alarm every night, you always get to work on time and are never reprimanded for being late. This behavior is strengthened by a
25. After your dog has learned to consistently come to you on command, it is wise to put her on ____ because it is more resistant to extinction.